ART - ACTION - ACADEMIA social and technical context of events and collaborations by Tjebbe van Tijen 1966-2006

Picture index 49 selected events 1966 -2005     click  image to jump to detail description of an event and    to jump back again  -  click  to jump to Text index   
 
Text index 49 selected events 1966 -2005  xxx   = collective events   the rest are author(s) events   click   to jump to detailed description and come back here  - click    for Picture index

01  Abiura Pax Brera ’Academia di belli Arti di Brera, Milano 1966
02  Continuous Drawing 1966-1967
03 Continuous Film 1966-1967
04 Pneumatic Theatre 1966-1967
05 Hommage à Clovis Trouille 1966-1967
06 Situaties Haags Gemeentemuseum 1967
07 Happening Cinestud Film Festival 1967
08 Breathing, Airmatter, Soundform (heads environment) 1967
09 Corpocinema 1967
10 Waterspelen (water plays) 1967
11 Research Center Art Technology and Society 1967-1969
12 Discussion paper for ICOGRADA design Congress 1968
13 Pariss May-June ‘68 exhibition 1969
14 Manifesto against World Expo in Osaka 1968-69
15 Toller action - revolutie is geen theater (revolution is no theatre) 1969
16 Nieuwmarkt Feesten (neighbourhood festival) Amsterdam 1971
17 Het Echte Metro Museum (the real metro museum) 1974-1976
18 Yurt construction Anti-City Circus/UNCSTD 1978-1979
19 Celdroom (prison dream) 1983-1985
20 Vrije Culturele Ruimtes (free cultural spaces) 1984-1992
21 Andere informatiebronnen (other information sources) 1984
22 Controlled Language Visual Information System CLAVIS 1986->
23 Het IJ Geopend (visualizing urban plans for Amsterdam)1986
24 Radiophonic Installation of the Stopera 1986
25 Literary Psychogeography of Amsterdam 1986-1988
  26 Hallofonische (intercom) installatie Anthoniesbreestraat 1988
27 Extreme Information Streams 1988
28 Europe Against the Current: Bill Stickers Will Be Prosecuted 1989-1990
29 Europe Against the Current: Radical Information Carriers 1989-1990
30 Imaginary Museum of Revolution 1988-1989
31 Videodisc Sculpture 'Revolution' 1990
32 Micro-Chrono Machine 1994
33 Orbis Pictus Revised: Looking and Pointing 1995-1996
34 Orbis Pictuse Revised:Touching and Feeling 1995-1996
35 Neo-Shamanism: Hand Scrolls 1997
36 Neo-Shamanism: Horizontal Drum in yurt 1997
37 Neo-Shamanism: Vertical Drum 1998
38 Neo-Shamanism: Stones and Primordial Myth 1998
39 Neo-Shamanism: Cyber-Shamanism 1998
40 Neo-Shamanism: Quipu cords and optical fibres 1998
41 The Gate of Language Unlocked 1999 (design)
42 Unbombing the World 1999->
43 True Source of Religion project design for Berliner Festspiele 2000
44 Paradox of Traceless Art visual lecture 2000->
45 Literary Psychogeography of Edo/Tokyo 2000->
46 Shadow Play 2003->
47 Digital Papua music scrolls 2003->
48 Ars Memoria System 2003->
49 De Tolerantia 2004->
     


Detailed descriptions
1

what
An assemblage of plaster sculptures and plaster casts as found as left overs at the Academia di Belli Arti di Brera in Milano form two sides of a sarcophagus that is raised on four columns covered with plaster casted weeds, on top an unfinished sculpture of a man (also another student’s work) covered with cracked clay and fixed in red jelly like polyester; two hand drawn wooden panels at the side of the sarcophagus give some visual and textual clues on the meaning of this monument. The monument is placed against a backdrop of a huge collage of hundreds of cut-out charcoal nude studies, also by students of the academy (this collage was in the end not shown in the exhibition because the owners of the Galleria San Fedele, as Jezuit priests, thought all this nudeness too confronting for their public).
Abiura Pax Brera 1966
(picolo monumento per l’Academia di belli Arti di Brera, Milano)

Tjebbe van Tijen (author)
5 contributing persons
1 contributing organizations
1
where/when
locations

who
persons
Cattaneo, Enrico: photography
Cavaliere, Alec: support
Passoni, Franco: art critic
Sangregorio, Giancarlo: support
Tijen, Tjebbe van: concept, production

organizations
ITA Milano, Academia di belli Arti di Brera: supplier of materials, object of criticism

where/when
locations
(1966) ITA Milano, group exhibition: Claudio Martinenghi, Denis Masi, Franco Mazzuchelli, Jeffrey Shaw, Tjebbe van Tijen: Galeria San Fedele


1966; Catalogo Centro Culturale San Fedele (Milano); catalogue of group exhibition Martinenghi, Masi, Mazzuchelli, Van Tijen and Shaw.
2

what
A branching drawing system of abstract organic forms going over any surface made mostly with perishable materials like chalk and wax, starting from holes, wells or other fluid surfaces and continuing its parcours for several hours. It has a set of strict topological rules and can be made by several drawers at the same time. The drawing system can be learned by following a correspondence course and some days of practical training. The drawing appears and disappears at several occasions, in buildings, out on the street, through the pages of a magazine and its longest stretch realized is when it grows from London to Amsterdam and Rotterdam hopping on persons, taxis, in an airplane, over the passengers, up the wall of the Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam and the next day disappearing in a smoke projection in Rotterdam (see Corpocinema).

why
The correspondence course for continuous drawing was a kind of pastiche of the American course called “Famous Artist School” (a Dutch version of this course also existed), combined with all kind of pompous art history texts. The following is a quotation from the “foreword to the second revised edition” of the continuous drawing course:

“Before modern art made a complete breakaway from the easily recognizable pictures, right at the very beginning something was developing that did not entirely deny naturalism but nevertheless criticized it in a sense. The form was not represented is a ‘chance’ form but stylized into a type of form. This is an expression of one of the most widespread human desires, the desire to regulate and sum up the outside world by means of a small number of universal systems and formulas. In other words: One wants to reduce the many individual forms to one simplified average form in which one can no longer distinguish the individual peculiarities but only the type, the sort.
A desire that has its parallel in nature itself: Nature is not concerned with the existence of the individual but only with the survival of the sort. Every stylization is based upon the recognition of the true essence in many various forms of the same sort and their reduction to a basic geometric pattern.
This form is imprinted upon the memory and is an easy basis for all kinds of individual variations.
Ornaments, if they have passed through real stages of growth are always essentially derived from a form of nature, a plant, a man, an animal, or an instinct, a movement that perpetually repeats itself. There is not always a logical explanation, one must simply learn to sense things for himself.
The ability to absorb impressions transformed into systems and symbols and to instantaneously attach a whole chain of thoughts and emotions to them is a specifically human ability.

IN THE BEGINNING THERE WAS THE LINE.”

NB the course was going to be published in English, but this failed because a Flemish printer where it should be printed refuse to do it because of pictures of a naked girl (Saar Stolk) covered by continuous drawings. The full English translation does exist and will at some state be put on-line.

how


Continuous Drawing 1966-1967
Tjebbe van Tijen (author)
22 contributing persons
15 contributing organizations
12 locations


who
persons
Bergen, H.C.J. Struyk van: support
Bertschinger, Bernard: supporter
Boelen, Olivier: support
Boersma, Pieter: photography
Dijkhuizen, Guus: publisher
Gevers-Deijnoot, Wendela : performer
Heijningen, Matthijs van: production
Latham, John: supporter
Morris, Desmond: supporter
Os, Mara van: performer
Perry, Clay: photography
Pieters, Ludo: commissioner
Schook, Ammeke: performer
Schook, Florence: performer
Sonsbeek, E.H. van: commissionar
Stolk, Saar: performer
Strijkers, J.M.: support
Swart, Herman: support
Tellegen, Adinka: performer
Tijen, Tjebbe van: concept, performer, production
Wiedeman, Hans: commissionar
Woud, Foke: performer

organizations
GBR London, Better Books : accommodator
GBR London, Institute of Contemporary Art (ICA) : supporter
NLD Amsterdam, Amsterdamse Jeugdraad : supporter
NLD Amsterdam, Bureau Jeugdzaken Gemeente Amsterdam : commissionar
NLD Amsterdam, Kunstzaken Gemeente Amsterdam : subsidiser
NLD Amsterdam, Sigma Centrum: accommodator, supporter
NLD Amsterdam, Sigma Projekten : organizer
NLD Amsterdam, Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam : accommodator
NLD Amsterdam, Verening Voor Vreemdelingenverkeeer (VVV): supporter
NLD Den Haag, Royal Dutch Airlines KLM : sponsor
NLD Eindhoven, Globe Theater : accommodator
NLD Rotterdam, Kunstzaken Gemeente Rotterdam : subsidiser
NLD Rotterdam, Museum Boymans van Beuningen : accommodator, organizer
NLD Rotterdam, Rotterdamse Kunst Stichting: subsidiser
NLD Zeist, Nederlandse Kunst Stichting: supporter


where/when
locations
s (1966) GBR London, Better Books Basement
(1966) GBR London, Nottinghill Gate, Kensington Park
(1966) NLD Beek en Donk, Kasteelhoeve
(1967) GBR London, Institute of Contemporary Art (ICA)
(1967) GBR London, streets steps at Pall Mall next to Institute of Contemporary Arts
(1967) NLD Amsterdam, Sigma Centrum
(1967) NLD Amsterdam, Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam
(1967) NLD Amsterdam, streets inner town and museum quarter
(1967) NLD Eindhoven, Globe Theater
(1967) NLD Rotterdam, streets inner town (Lijnbaanscentrum, Coolsingel)
(1967) NLD Schiphol, Schiphol Airport
(1980) NLD Rotterdam, Museum Boymans van Beuningen

1967; Tijen, Tjebbe van; Continuous drawing course for beginners; Dutch language (the full text exists also in English).

1967; Gandalf; cultural underground magazine with comtinuous drawings on cover and growing through the inside pages.

1967; ICA Bulletin; photo story of the journey of the continuous drawing from London to Amsterdam and Rotterdam.

1967; Newspaper clippings dossier; Continuous Drawing summer 1967.

1983; Beeren, Wim; Actie, werkelijkheid en fictie in de kunst van de jaren '60 in Nederland; catalogue about action art of the sixties in the Netherlands Museum Boymans van Beuningen Rotterdam.
3

what
A thousand small ink drawings with organic calligraphic elements, alternately made by the two authors, form the basis of this experiment in visual perception. From the original drawings three variations (mirror, negative and mirror negative) were made using a photo copying process. The resulting four drawing variations,complemented by full white and full black frames, were shot by a movie camera using single frame capture. The sequences that were filmed consisted of very fast alternating series of frames with black, white, positive image, mirror image, and negative image. The projected result is a flashing, twinkling and dancing of images. As the film is projected as a loop there is no beginning and no end, and it is only after a prolonged viewing that the spectator will discover this repetition. Though technically the film was produced as an animation film, the makers had no intent to mimick any form of movement. The film studies human perception of fast sequences of still images (”continuous static graphic projection”) also trying out some theories on ‘subliminal perception’, whereby a spectator is supposed to unconsciously perceive a single frame (lasting 38 milliseconds) or a very brief series of frames, with a specific message, within a movie with a different subject.

A composition for six musicians, inspired by the images, has later been added as a sound track. The non-traditional music score had many graphic and image elements to be interpreted by the players.
The film has been a part of several happenings and installations, often projected on moving and changing surfaces animated by the public, or through translucent screens, in smoke and on liquid surfaces.

why
The following long quotation from the Synopsis of the film project explains its intention (text probably written in early 1967):

“The film was conceived from the need to explore a graphic idea throughout the infinite possibilities of it forms. To approximate its unending capacity for development, extension, growth, disintegration, contra-statement, dialogue, etc.. And to extend this capacity even furtherthrough a co-exploration by two makers.

It is a response to the inadequacy of the drawing as such which contains in its unity of oneness, an implicit relationship to absolute ideas and a determined universe. The continuous series, by its a-Platonic multiplicity and documentation of change and the relativity of one among many, becomes a far more siginificant vehicle of expression than the single work as such.

The film as a continuous series of sound and image moments, is an expression of BEGINNING, an approximation of the human condition of eternal change, infinite shades of form and fleeting identities. It seeks to excite the perceptive process for indeterminite form within the total flux.”

At the end of this synopsis another concept that lead to the film is explained:

“This film partakes of a general program for DISILLUSION. Disillusion as applied to film involves the disolution of its conventional theatric experience as a phantasy window. The spatial and visual character of this film will act to confront the observer with art presence and personal presence as equal immediacys.”

how


Continuous Film 1966-1967
Jeffrey Shaw (author)
Tjebbe van Tijen (author)
Willem Breuker (contributing author)
16 contributing persons
13 contributing organizations
6 locations

who
persons
Bergeyk, Gilius van: musician
Breuker, Willem: composer, musician
Cobbing, Bob: curator
Courbois, Pierre: musicien
Gorter, Arjen: musicien
Hampel, Gunther: musicien
Latham, John: supporter
Ledoux, Jacques: commiossionar
Mills, Barney Platt: technical advice
Pieterson, Sjors: musicien
Scott, James: support
Shaw, Jeffrey: conccept, production
Swart, Herman: support
Tieghem, Jean Pierre van: curator
Tijen, Tjebbe van: concept, production
Weiland, Frits: sound recording

organizations
BEL Bruxelles, Cinemathèque de Bruxelles : accommodator
GBR London, Better Books : accommodator
GBR London, London Filmmakers Coop : publisher
GBR London, Maya Fim Productions Ltd.: supporter
GBR London, St. Martins School of Art : facilitator
NLD Amsterdam, Nederlands Filmmuseum : collector
NLD Amsterdam, Prins Bernhard Fonds : subsidiser
NLD Amsterdam, Sigma Projekten : organizer
NLD Amsterdam, Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam : accommodator
NLD Den Haag, Ministerie Cultuur Recreatie en Maatschappelijk Werk: subsidiser
NLD Eindhoven, Nederlandse Filmmakers Cooperatie: distributor
NLD Rotterdam, Museum Boymans van Beuningen : accommodator, organizer
NLD Utrecht, Studio voor Elektronische Muziek : facilitator sound recording

where/when
locations
(1966) GBR London, Better Books Basement
(1966) NLD Beek en Donk, Kasteelhoeve
(1967) BEL Knokke Le Zoute, International Experimental Film Festival: Casino
(1980) NLD Rotterdam, Museum Boymans van Beuningen
(1983) NLD Amsterdam, Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam
(1983) NLD Utrecht, Festival Film en Kunst: Filmhuis 't Hoogt


1967; London Film Makers Cooperative; Cinim magazine; Examples of music score (by Willem Breuker, drawings and notation system for film sequences of the continuous film.

1997; Abel, Manuela; Jeffrey Shaw - a user's manual; from expanded cinema to virtual reality; with a section on the Continuous Film.

2003; Shaw, Jeffrey / Weibel, Peter; Future cinema; Both the Continuous Film and Corpocinema are documented.
4

what
Design for theatrical performances making use of inflatable and hydraulic elements combined with film and slide projection, all kind of whistles and body drawings extending to the stage and the public. Only a few elements have been used in happenings in London and The Hague, most of these designs for theater performances have not been realized. Some were meant to be performed in the Sigma Center in Amsterdam, whose director of that time Olivier Boelen had invited me to come to Amsterdam (as I was staying in London at that time). There were some contacts with the ballet group of Koert Stuyf, but the project did not materialize after all.

why
The following leaflet text from october 1966 gives some insight in the ideas of that time:

DESIGNFOR A PNEUMATIC THEATRE

all surfaces are common property
signs and forms break out of their cadres
ideas become form directly
continious changing
continious growing
the unfinished with its dynamics of unrealised possibilities
a maximal form with minimal resources
an air-circus, a toy with an undefined function
a mentality
instead of wonderworks of ingenuity , the desillusion of reality
the realisation of a dream, the unrealised possibilities
the human desire to achieve the impossible
the touch , the tactile sense , the discovery of a next dimension
outside the own skin
plastic will be largely the material used inrealisation: not because it is supposed to be a ‘material of our time’, but because it is the most unpersonal material in form and possibilities
it is a general conscieness that emerges in form

tjebbe van tijen October ‘66

NB the spellings mistakes in the original have been kept; continious = continuous; desillusion = disillusion (desillusie in Dutch)

Pneumatic Theatre 1966-1967
Tjebbe van Tijen (author)
4 contributing persons
3 contributing organizations
2 locations

who
persons
Boelen, Olivier: support
Cobbing, Bob: support
Heijningen, Matthijs van: support
Tijen, Tjebbe van: concept

organizations
GBR London, Better Books : accommodator
NLD Amsterdam, Sigma Centrum: supporter
NLD Amsterdam, Sigma Projekten : organizer

where/when
locations
(1966) GBR London, Better Books Basement
(1967) NLD Amsterdam, Sigma Centrum

1966; Vinkenoog, Simon; Randstad: manifesten en manifestaties; A special issue of the Dutch literary journal Randstad on happenings and manifestos, bordering art, politics and play..

1966; Tijen, Tjebbe van; Pneumatisch Theater; manuscript with skectches for pneumatic events.
5

what
A three-dimensional mock-up of one of the paintings of the French surealist Clovis Trouille forms a projection screen that slopes from white lady buttocks into a screen bordered by black curtains. The floor of the space is made of voluptuous undulating foam rubber on which the spectators can lay down and enjoy a series of slide projections of the erotic paintings of Clovis Trouille.
Hommage à Clovis Trouille 1966-1967
Jeffrey Shaw (author)
Tjebbe van Tijen (author)
4 contributing persons
2 contributing organizations
3 locations

who
persons
Botschuyver, Theo: production
Nijland, Nico: production
Shaw, Jeffrey: concept, production
Tijen, Tjebbe van: concept, production

organizations
NLD London, Kingly Street 26 Keith Albarn & Partners : accommodator
NLD Rotterdam, Museum Boymans van Beuningen : accommodator, organizer

where/when
locations
(1966) NLD Beek en Donk, Kasteelhoeve
(1967) GBR London, Keith Albarn & Partners: Kingly Street 26
(1980) NLD Rotterdam, Museum Boymans van Beuningen

 

1965; Campagne, Jean-Marc ; Clovis Trouille; Book published by Jean-Jacques Pauvert on the surrealist erotic work of Trouille that inspired the installation.
6

what
An evening with a series of happenings in the municipal museum of modern art in The Hague, or in the words of the participating ‘Ontbijt op bed’ (breakfeast in bed) group from Maastricht a confrontation with: “non-object art”. The part of Tjebbe van Tijen had the following suprises: jazz musicians playing and parading in an inflatbale costume for heads; the continuous drawing growing over floors, walls, musicians and a naked lady; threeD drawing with spray can foam; and nuts (nuts is ‘noten’ in Dutch, also meaning musical notes) being thrown around by musicians and taken away by vacuum cleaning. Descritpion of other events at this can be found in Museum Journaal article (see column at your right hand).

Situaties Haags Gemeentemuseum 1967
Tjebbe van Tijen (author)
7 contributing persons
1 contributing organizations
1 locations

who
persons
Boersma, Pieter: photography
Courbois, Pierre: musician
Gorter, Arjen: musician
Hampel, Gunther: musician
Panhuysen, Paul: curator
Stolk, Saar: performer
Tijen, Tjebbe van: concept, performer

organizations
NLD Den Haag, Haags Gemeentemuseum: accommodator

where/when
locations
(1967) NLD Den Haag, Haags Gemeentemuseum


1967; Ontbijt op Bed; NON OBJEKT KUNST manifest; silkscreened manifesto of the 'provo' group of Maastricht with the intriguing name 'Breakfast at Bed' about non-object art with as one of the slogans "art is the legitimate interference of the existing social order".

1967; Panhuysen, Paul; a.o.; Museum Journaal (Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam); article on 'situation art' relating to the event in the municipal museum of The Hague, Also article on activities of Sigma Projecten Amsterdam..

1967; B en W Den Haag: "Blauwe hand bende niet wanordelijk"; newspaper clipping with a reaction of the city authorities of The Hague on complains of a christian city councillor about the happenings in the municipal museum with a naked lady and "fouling" of walls and floors....
7

what
A ‘collective head costume’ consisting of a big inflated black amoebic bag, where six persons can stick their head in, is worn by the organizers of the yearly student film festival Cinestud when they attend the new year reception of the maior of Amsterdam in the local museum of modern art. The name of the festival is written in white letters all over the head costume.
At the closing evening of the festival films are projected on a screen that is made of paper boxes filled with rolls of plastic tubal foil that starts to inflate during the projection, bursting through the paper into the audience. Also over the heads of the audience such boxes are hanging filled with white weather balloons. The audience grabs and jumps enthusiastically at the inflatables and becomes part of the expanded cinema event.
Happening Cinestud Film Festival 1967
Tjebbe van Tijen (author)
6 contributing persons
2 contributing organizations
2 locations


who
persons
Berkvens, : commissionar
Boersma, Pieter: photography
Leursdijk, : commissionar
Mijksenaar, Paul: production
Pape, : commissionar
Tijen, Tjebbe van: concept, production

organizations
NLD Amsterdam, Cinestud Filmfestival : commissionar
NLD Amsterdam, Sigma Projekten : organizer

where/when
locations
(1967) NLD Amsterdam, Cinestud Festival: Hallen Theater, Jan van Galenstraat
(1967) NLD Amsterdam, Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam
 
8

what
A show with installations, environments and a series of events in an experimental art space in one of the ‘hip’ streets of West End London in the mid sixties. The environments for heads by Tjebbe van Tijen was a fixed construction in the gallery where the spectator could enter only with the head. The space thus entered was black and full of tubing filled with air and floating liquids, a very slowly expanding water basin with seeds growing in wet cotton, and a bunch of beeping and tootling child toy whistles fixed to the air outlet, the sound of dripping water could be heard as well. There were headphones for each visitor with different sound tracks (some with nice music, others with insulting language) so the facial expression of the spectators might differ. The loss of body proportions by just seeing heads added the estranging effect.
Jeffrey Shaw had as one of his installations a projection screen made out of surgeon’s gloves, that could be inflated - by a user - in diffrent ways though a simple air foot pump (see Event Appendix for details)..

how


Breathing, Airmatter, Soundform 1967
(heads environment)

Jeffrey Shaw (author)
Tjebbe van Tijen (author)
3 contributing persons
1 contributing organizations
1 locations

who
persons
Alborn, Keith: commisionar
Shaw, Jeffrey: concept, production
Tijen, Tjebbe van: concept, production

organizations
GBR London, Kingly Street 26 Keith Albarn & Partners : accommodator, commissionar

where/when
locations
(1967) GBR London, Keith Albarn & Partners: Kingly Street 26


1967; Albarn, Keith; 26 Kingly Street; Policy statement leaflet by Keith Albarn & Partners for their London gallery.
9

what
A big size inflatable transparent dome as a living screen for movie projection, displayed as a free for all show, at public squares in Amsterdam and Rotterdam. Different substances and techniques were used to create dynamic projection surfaces, with smoke, white inflatable tubing, foam, paint, jelly, powder and water sprays. Projections on the dome were combined with lighting effects from the inside of the dome and the use of pyrotechnic devices that reflected on the outside of the dome. Projections were done from three sides with high capacity film projectors. A mix of movies was shown: promotional films for products like washing powder; documentary films about racing cars, moon expeditions and American airforce activities; comics and other children films; and experimental films like the racing colorful stripes of Mc Laren and the stroboscopic flashings of the Continuous Movie. There were also day events whereby the acoustic properties of the dome were tried out by The New Electric Chamber Music Ensemble, combined with paint and foam sprayings on the outside of the dome (using an elevator truck to access the upper parts).

why
Quotation from Sigma Projects leaflet( August or September 1967):

“CORPOCINEMA Theo Botshuiver, Jeffrey Shaw

Corpocinema is a semi-spherical pneumatic structure designed to materialize projected images through space in conjunction with a program of corporeal event phenomena within. This signifies a reconstitution of conceptual situations (film) in real time (event structure).”

Quatation from a draft text, probably for a press release September 1967:

“The program was in Amsterdam was realised with the collaboration of Sean Wellesley Miller.”

Follows an end note:

“In effect this project indicates an extensive area of event/film (corpocinematic) reserach which is now being undertaken by Th. Botschuijver and J. Shaw. The inflatable device made for Sigma-projects is the first public manifestation of the initial results of this reserach program.”

NB spelling as in original.



how


Corpocinema 1967
Theo Botschuyver (author)
Jeffrey Shaw (author)
Tjebbe van Tijen (contributing author)
Sean Wellesy- Miller (contributing author)
16 contributing persons
10 contributing organizations
2 locations

who
persons
Bergen, H.C.J. Struyk van: support
Botschuyver, Theo: concept, object design
Cate, Ritsaert ten: support
Heijningen, Matthijs van: production
Keevel, Chris: electrician
Miller, Sean Wellesy-: concept, performer, production
Pieters, Ludo: commissioner
Poel, Klaas: production
Prüst, Toon: musician
Scha, Remko: performer
Shaw, Jeffrey: concept, performer, production
Sonsbeek, E.H. van: commissionar
Strijkers, J.M.: support
Swart, Herman: support
Tijen, Tjebbe van: concept, production
Wiedeman, Hans: commissionar

organizations
NLD 's Herenberg, GENAP: contractor inlfatable structure
NLD Amsterdam
NLD Amsterdam, Amsterdamse Jeugdraad : supporter
NLD Amsterdam, Sigma Centrum: supporter
NLD Amsterdam, Sigma Projekten : organizer
NLD Eindhoven, : music group
NLD Loenersloot, Mickery Theater: supporter
NLD Rotterdam, Kunstzaken Gemeente Rotterdam : subsidiser
NLD Rotterdam, Rotterdamse Kunst Stichting: subsidiser
NLD Zeist, Nederlandse Kunst Stichting: supporter

where/when
locations
(1967) NLD Amsterdam, Museumplein
(1967) NLD Rotterdam, Schouwburgplein


1967; Shaw, Jeffrey/Botschuijver, Theo; Corpocinema : portfolio with sketches for events, technical drawings of the dome and handout with a description of different corpocinematic events

1967; Corpocinema : newspaper clippings dossier; of the Amsterdam and Rotterdam event.

1969; Derks, Hans; Wonen; "Blow up that 'thing'", cover of architecture and design magazine with article on Corpocinema and other events.

2002; Topham, Sean; Blow Up; inflatable art, architecture, and design; shows Corpocinema.
10

What & Why
“GETTING WET
WATCHING
HOW OTHERS GET WET
WITHOUT
GETTING WET YOURSELF

MAKING YOURSELF DIRTY
WATCHING
HOW OTHERS GET DIRTY
WITHOUT GETTING DIRTY YOURSELF

WASHING OFF THE DIRT

PLAYING AND
WATCHING HOW OTHERS PLAY
WITHOUT PLAYING YOURSELF”

This is in short the envisaged program as proposed to the Amsterdam Holiday Committee that had asked Sigma Projects to make a proposal for playful events in one of the big suburban parks during the summer holiday (het Amsterdamse Bos). The idea was to combine water, mud and air (inflatables). several people involved in earlier experiments took part in the design. Budget limitations made that this event did not materialize. This design pointed clearly to a possible recreational use of some of the elements that had been developed more or less in an art context. In the next years several of these ideas materialized in the activities undertaken by the Event Structure Research group (ERG). Most of the participating people were active in the Netherlands with the exception of Graham Stevens who had done several recreational art events in London.

One of my favorite proposals for this ‘Waterspelen’ was a big mud bath at the edge of a pond that was covered by a big transparent inflatable structure that covered both the mud bath and the adjacent part of the pond. The kids could only enter the mud bath by diving in the water and underneath the floating part of the inflatable cover. In this way they would always enter and exit clean and washed.

There were also a series of spectacles planned like the project for “Six activating sand mountains” of Jeffrey Shaw, with 5 meter high sand pyramids that would be activated by pyrotechnics and inflatables.

Safe inflatable costumes were designed by Nico Nijland that would let one float as a toad in the water. Big pneumatic tube elements with simple connectors could be played with and combined in all kind of temporal structures.


Waterspelen 1967
(water plays) project proposal

collective work
7 contributing persons
2 contributing organizations

who
persons
Bergen, H.C.J. Struyk van: support
Botschuyver, Theo: concept, object design
Nijland, Nico: object design
Shaw, Jeffrey: concept
Stevens, Graham: concept, object design
Tijen, Tjebbe van: concept
Wiedeman, Hans: commissionar

organizations
NLD Amsterdam
NLD Amsterdam, Sigma Projekten : organizer



1967; Utopie : Revue de sociologie de l'urbain; some of the collaborators:.Jean Aubert, Jean Baudrillard, Jean-Paul Jungmann, Hubert Tonka. First issue has ifluential article on ephermal structures in architecture and urban environment.

1967; Sigma Projecten; Waterspelen; proposal for summer vacation activities for kids in Amsterdam municipal park with water and inflatables.

1967; Stevens, Graham; Pneumatic Environment portfolio; a selection from a small dossier with proposals by Graham Stevens for Sigma Projecten Amsterdam.
11

What & Why
An initiative for a documentation and coordination center on art, science, technology and society. It started with two reports that gave an overview of the state of affairs on these subjects in 1967.

One report was about the necessary betterment of contact between two social categories , artists, designers and cultural animators on the one hand and engineers, technicians and scientists on the other. A need is noticed for experimental projects outside the traditional cultural cadres of museum, concert hall and theater, based on new forms of collaboration between these two categories. Such experiments that would go beyond the traditional art forms would be needed for making the urban environment more livable and develop new forms of recreation. Such new forms of collaboration between art technology and science should also be implemented in the educational system. Suggestions are made for educational programs for artist/engineers and changes in the passive attitude of art history and social cultural work education. Examples of such new forms of collaboration are given in an appendix: Experiments in Art and technology (EAT), USA; Artist Placement Group (APG), UK; Center for Advanced Study of Science in Art, London; Fylkingen, Stockholm; Utopie group, Paris; Archigramme, London; Organization for Environment Art Research, Japan; Dvijenie Group, USSR; Event Structure Research Group (ERG), London/Amsterdam. Examples of new educational activities are mentioned: The Advanced Studies Group at Hornsey College of Art, England; courses by EAT, New York; Kritiese Universiteit/critical university, Amsterdam; The Antiuniversity of London; guest lecture of artist Christo at Minneapolis School of Art, USA.

The other report notes a discrepancy between economic and cultural development and a one-sided growth of science and technology with art lacking behind: “We are living with a culture that does not relate at all to the technical and scientific achievements of our time”. This shortcoming can be overcome by better information through active methods of documentation. A comparison is made between information and documentation in the fields of art and of science and technology. The conclusion is that information and documentation in the field of art is still traditionally oriented: “... the emphasis is on the transfer of established values, failing to notice cultural innovation and movements”. It is proposed to start with documenting the fringe areas of culture, science, technology with an emphasis on innovation. Special consideration is given to the collection of the products of small, alternative and independent publishers. Documentation ‘pools’ and other forms of networking between existing institutions, possibly with the use of computers are suggested.

The first stage of this project was done from offices in the Sigma Center, Amsterdam. Later the museum of modern art (Stedelijk Museum) housed the project for over a year. There were some ideas that the project could become a new function of the library of the Stedelijk Museum, but the head of this department was a very traditional man, which frustrated the working situation and kept this idea from being realized. It is interesting to note that at time one of the librarian attendants was Wiesje Smals, later the founder of De Appel.

In 1968 and 1969 a series of conferences on this subject was organized in the Amsterdam Museum Fodor (at that time an annex of the Stedelijk Museum). Accordingly they were called “De Fodor Coneferenties”. Several of the subjects touched by the research project for a new center were discussed here, sadly without any direct practical resul. The minutes of these meetings have been kept and make good reading on the state of mind of the Dutch art and design sscene of that moment.


Research Center Art Technology and Society 1967-1969
Robert Hartzema (author)
Tjebbe van Tijen (author)
10 contributing persons
6 contributing organizations
2 locations

who
persons
Beem, Arie: support
Beeren, Wim: support
Dieleman, Edmond: research
Hartzema, Robert: concept, research
Henegouwen, G.K. van Beijeren Bergen en: support
Kaan, A.: support
Latham (Steveni), Barbara: inspirator
Riemsdijk, Jan van: support
Tijen, Tjebbe van: concept, research
Wilde, Eddy de: support

organizations
GBR London, Artist Placement Group (APG): collaborating organization
NLD Amersfoort, Documentatie en Informatie centrale (DIC): supporter
NLD Amsterdam, Sigma Centrum: supporter
NLD Amsterdam, Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam : accommodator, supporter
NLD Amsterdam, Stichting Vrije Gemeente: employer
NLD Den Haag, Raad voor de Kunst: supporter

where/when
locations
(1967-1968) NLD , Inquiry by mail to three hundred persons and organizations: in the Netherlands
(1967-1968) NLD Amsterdam, Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam


1967; E.A.T. News [Experiments in Art and technology; New York]; vol.1 no.3, Julie Martin editor.

1967; Fylkingen International Bulletin : Stockholm Festival on art and technology I; with a.o. Knut Wiggen, Gunnar Larsson, Yona Friedman, Sven Fagerberg.

1968; Reichardt, Jasia ; Cybernetic serendipity : the computer and the arts : a Studio International special issue; catlogue like publicatikon of the show with the same name in The Institute of Contemporart Arts (ICA) in London.

1968; Hartzema, Robert H.F.; Voorlopige formulering ... voor het kontakt tussen kultuur, technologie en wetenscappen, en een betere integhratie daarvan in de samenleving; initial report for a study on art technology, science and society.

1968; Tijen, Tjebbe van; Voorlopige formulering ... van een Kultureel Informatie/Dokumentatie en Koordinatie Centrum; initial report for a study on a information and documentation and coordination center on art technology and society.

1968; Tijen, Tjebbe van; 1968 januari - november documentatie bewegingen in het kunst en vormgevings onderwijs; Month by month documentation of protest movements in art and design education mainly in the Netherlands, United Kingdom, and France.
12

what
ICOGRADA is an international association of graphic design organizations, since the beginning of the sixties it organizes regular conferences all over the world. In 1968 the Dutch town Eindhoven was chosen as a venue during the month of August. Eindhoven is also the town where the first Dutch Academy for Industrial Design was founded. Since end 1967 in all kind of places in the Western world critical movements had started in many social fields. These movements either came from the cultural field or reflected on it. The congress in Eindhoven had been discussed with some friends who were at that moment involved in debating their study at the local Academy of Industrial Design. There was anger at this established gathering and the high entry fees that made it difficult to go in and open a discussion. So the idea came to take part in an indirect way by making an English language publication that would have texts aimed at the participants of the conference. The local cultural underground paper ‘De Andere Krant’ (the other paper) helped out and during 5 days the house of the publisher was invaded and we selected texts, hammered out texts on the typewriters that had been assembled, scissored and glued the quotations; the bigger letter type was made by enlarging the typed letters in a dark room. The offset printer produced a paper in a jiffy, ready to be handed out at the congress gates.

On each page in big type there was the slogan: “awakening and becoming aware”. Most of the texts were in English, but also some in Dutch, French and German. Some of the material quoted was the following:
Archigramme statement, 1966; Manifesto of Russian Kineticist, 1967; Utopie group, France 967; Event Structure Research Group, 1968; statement on industrial design by Ronal Bekcman, 1968; critical texts on the Hochschule für Gestaltung in Ulm; texts from the student movement at Hornsey College of Art, 1968; a quote from ‘Wasteland culture’ by George Benello, 1968; a text about avant-garde art by Constant, 1964; a quote from ‘Growing up absurd’ by Paul Goodman, 1956; propositions for a cultural revolution by the French group Le Carré Bleu, 1968; Max Bill on commerce and art; a whole series of critical quotations taken from the reports of earlier ICOGRADA congresses. In the end there are some texts from the occupation of the international design fair in Italy, the ‘Triennale’: “A group of artists, architects and students have closed, for an indeterminate period of time, another of the bulwarks of the bourgeoise culture that still conserves, among other things, its old fascist constitution...” follows a whole expose on imperialist and capitalist exploitation in the West and Third World and calls for a “demystifying of the consumeristic utilization of cultural products.” The last text is the manifesto that discusses the upcoming world fair in Osaka Japan 1970.

A curious discovery was when I asked photographer Pieter Boersma if he had some pictures of this ICOGRADA congress and he came up with a series of photographs of a part event organized for the ICOGRADA participants in and around a small castle near Eindhoven in Vught. This event was done by Theo Botschuijver and Jeffrey Shaw with all kind of plastic foils and inflatables, something I had not been aware of at that time. So there was some apparent form of ideological devision.

why
The colophon of the ICOGRADA special explains some of the why:

“This discussion-paper expresses our attitude towards this kind of congresses.

The composers

This publication has been made on a budget of Hfl.300,-, issued by Muskuspress Eindhoven; circulation 1000; made by daan bouhuijs/design student, ellen boesten/no proferssion, iniek klarenbeek/designer, kees neeteson/copywriter, paul de nooijer/photographer, tejjeb van tijen/cultural-coordinator, gerrit wolfswinkel/design student, and van beers/housewife, ine sinke/secreatry; within a period of 5 days; compare the total amount of the registration fees for the congress (Hfl. 1900,-) we had to pay in case we wanted to participate in teh discussions with the budget this publication has been made on.”
how


Discussion paper for ICOGRADA Congress 1968
collective undertaking
9 contributing persons
1 contributing organizations
1 locations

who
persons
Beers, Ank van: production
Boesten, Ellen: editorial production
Bouhuijs, Daan: editorial production
Klarenbeek, Iniek: graphic design
Neeteson, Kees: editorial production
Nooijer, Paul de: photography
Sinke, Ine: production
Tijen, Tjebbe van: concept, editorial production
Wolfswinkel, Gerrit: editorial production

organizations
NLD Eindhoven, De Andere Krant Eindhoven (DAK): publisher

where/when
locations
(1968) NLD Eindhoven, ICOGRADA congress:


1968; De Andere Krant (The Other Paper); special issue on the occasion of ICOGRADA congress in Eindhoven.
13


what
The first exhibition on the French May June 1968 movement took place in the Museum Fodor in Amsterdam, an annex of the museum of modern art (Stedelijk Museum). At that time such a thing could not take place in France were people could still be persecuted for certain deeds during the rising and even having lots of protest documentation could make one a suspect. Through a collaboration between the Stedelijk Museum and the International Institute of Social History (IISG), both based in Amsterdam, this exhibition could take place. The IISG had been collecting historical documents from and about revolutionary, workers and social movement since 1935 (a Dutch initiative as a reaction on the take over of power by the Nazis in Germany and Austria and the endangered socialist archives). Also this time the IISG saw it as its task to actively collect materials of the French May movement on the spot. The Institute had already some collecting ’consultants’ in France and several staff members from Amsterdam went to France to add with this task. There were also many people related in some way to the Institute who did the same thing on their own initiative. From July onward with the movement going down several people in France feared strong repression and were looking for a safe place to store documentation they had gathered and donated it to the IISG. All this came together and already in the summer of 1968 a big collection of all kind of documents had been established in Amsterdam.

The most primary documents were the leaflets and handouts of thousands of different initiatives, often duplicated, or printed in a simple way. Next came the posters and handwritten manifestos of all kind of sizes and with a great variety of subjects. Though nowadays the strong graphic language of the silkscreened posters produced at ‘atelier de beaux arts’ in Paris are mostly remembered, these were certainly not the first ones, and in fact the text based mostly handwritten wall papers and manifestos with all kind of declarations and calls are much more typical for the May 68 movement. New newspapers, magazines, journals, and dispatches of all kind were brought forth by this movement, some with strong graphics like the paper ‘Action’. Comments, proposals, manifestos, programs and the like in the form of brochures (pamphlets) flooded the bookshops and news stalls, were handed out, or sold on the streets. Photographers, filmmakers and radio journalists made all kind of independent registrations, like an association of independent filmmakers that undertook newsreel productions, taking the name ‘Etats Géneraux du Cinéma”. Of course the movement also reflected on existing news media that often published special editions or issues. Already during the first month books started to come out, documenting specific events, discussing or reflecting.

All this material had to be ordered in some way to show it and make it understandable. The head of the French department of the IISG, Tristan Haan, who before that time had been sunk deep into the 18th century and the radical writings of ”le curé Meslier”, woke up to the present and made 244 short descriptions and commentaries of such time documents, adding an overview of 153 groups and their obscure acronyms and abbreviations, many of which only existed for a few weeks. This formed the basis for the catalogue that showed also 135 leaflets, handwritten manifestos and posters, all translated into Dutch. The catalogue was a low budget production, so only pure black and white reproduction could be afforded at that time (even making rasters pictures would have been too expensive; difficult to understand for new generation working with graphic computer systems). Still when I leaf through the catalogue now in 2005 it breathes a graphic atmosphere that relates well with the spirit of the 68 movement.

There were film showings with life translations during the exhibition. The catalogue had special sections on movies and gramophone record documents and an international documentation of the 68 movement in the world of art.

Maybe here should also be noted that the Stedelijk Museum direction was not all that happy about this initiative. They somewhat feared its revolutionary impact, so when we proposed to hang the reprints of some May 68 posters, like the one with the clubbing CRS riot policeman, on the official advertisement boards of the museum had, this was refused. It took a decade or so before all the simple handwritten and badly duplicated documents were forgotten and only the nice and artistic looking documents could get popular with the curators and were often selected in museum exhibitions as emblems of Mai 68.

After 25 years the French archival institutions had catched up and even did better than us foreign pioneering documentarists. The National Library of France undertook a serious project to catalogue all the leaflets they had been able to put their hands on and even initiated a microfilmed edition that has preserved all together 10.067 handouts/leaflets of the May/June 1968 movement.

why
“Mai 68” has become the shortest way to denote a whole complex of social movements in the spring of 1968 in France and elsewhere, with May as the hot spot and June as a month of cool down.

Ten years before general De Gaulle had been elected president and founded what is called the “Ve Republique” with new strong presidential powers. A technocrat policy was pursued, by a center-right majority government, to modernize France, an imperial power that had just lost its colonies and still was a half agricultural, half industrial country. While major efforts were made to push a new high tech industry that would provide both cheap energy and military nuclear power, changes in other domains lacked behind. Former agricultural workers and small farmers had been driven from the fields into the new factories, soon demanding better working conditions which were most often denied. The educational domain, that had to supply the cadre for the new industrial order, had grown in size but failed to adapt to the demands of the younger generation. It was not surprising that something stirred up here, at first with small groups of students criticizing their own living conditions and future prospects in Strasbourg in 1966 (with the pamphlet “De la misère dans le millieu étudiant”/about he misery of student life) and later in the new Parisian suburban university of Nanterre in January 1968. During the opening ceremony of a new swimming pool, students interrupted the French minister of sports Missoffe who proclaimed that this pool was a sign of how the government took good care of the health of the students. The interruption was about the repressive role of sport and the strict gender separation in the dormitories of the Nanterre university campus and the resulting “unhygienic mental situation” for students because of their frustrated sexuality (a way of arguing coming directly from the writings of Wilhelm Reich in the thirties, rediscovered by French youth at that time). This last incident was the beginning of a series of conflicts at the Nanterre campus and led to its closure in March. This only radicalized the student movement. At the same time there were all kind or worker’s protest and action outside the Paris region, like in Caen at the SAVIEM factory. It certainly was not only a student movement, though at first they did get most of the publicity.

During the first of May demonstration in Paris, that was for the first time since long officially allowed, students from Nanterre that tried to join in were chased from the march by Communist Party trade unionists(CGT). For a long time there had been frictions between the rather orthodox French Communist Party and other socialist parties, unions and groupings. A period of oscillating events starts: demonstrations, counter-demonstrations provocations: like an arson attack of a student office at the Sorbonne - possibly by a right wing group - and protests meeting against it in the University compound. When the protesters are chased out by the police, the movement spreads over the neighbouring quarter, the Quartier Latin. The student movement is out in the streets. More demonstrations and closures of Universities follow. The movement widens, involving also high school students. Hard confrontations between demonstrators and police, defense and storming of old fashioned barricades that block Parisian boulevards. More and more arrests, wounded and people troubled by what appears in some case to have been more than “just” tear gas (some say it was nerve gas). The student movement triggers more social unrest, in all parts of the country occupations of factories occur, like Sud Aviation in Nantes and Renault in Cléon. Journalists of the ORTF (French state radio and television) form a committee. In Paris the Odéon theater is occupied and functions as a permanent platform for debates on social issues. Solidarity demonstration of students and workers occur, railways and air traffic is blocked by strikes. Not all strikes are called by the trade unions, several are directly initiated by workers, wild-cat strikes. All kind of sectors of society start to express their grievances with the existing system, school teachers, parents of school kids, art students, journalists, neighbourhood committees, an action committee in the National Library, even sport professionals who issue a leaflet with the slogan “le football aux footballeurs (football to the football players). Several university buildings are occupied, not just in Paris but also in the province.

All this seems to have little effect on the level of official politics. A vote of censure in the national assembly on the 22. of May is repulsed. A proposal for amnesty for arrested students is accepted as an attempt to still the uproar. All kind of action committees are formed to discuss social issues of a specific segment of society and take practical action. A general assembly with representatives of over a hundred of such committees takes place in Paris. There are some television speeches of president De Gaulle, at first disavowing, later promising a national referendum on a change of social structures that would allow for more “participation” of French citizens. Behind doors negotiations between trade unions and government start, while the movement continues on the streets and in occupied educational institutions and factories. The workers of the Renault Billancourt factories in Paris refuse to accept the first negotiation results of their unions. Mass meetings follow, the government can not deny or ignore the movement anymore. At first the minister of education Perefitte is dismissed and soon after, on May 30, president De Gaulle dismisses the parliament, new elections are announced. A call is launched for the forming of ‘citizens militia’ to defend the Republic. A big demonstration of Gaullist supporters marches down the Champs Elysée.

Describing the aftermath in the same way will go beyond the purpose of this short overview. Slowly over the weeks the waves of social unrest calm down. The trade unions declare that they had no political intend with the strikes, just economic demands and start to force the striking workers to accept the agreement with the government (called the “accords of Grenelle”, after the street where the negotiations took place). The elections at the end of June do not alter the relations between the political parties. The left opposition is at that time too much divided to offer an alternative. It takes till 1981, when the newly formed French Socialist Party under Mitterand, succeeds in allying (however temporarily) most of the left political forces, getting both a parliamentary majority and the presidency, though only for a short while...


Paris May-June ‘68 exhibition 1969
collective undertaking
17 contributing persons
11 contributing organizations
1 locations

who
persons
Berg, Gerard van de: energizer
Blazer, Carel: photography
Boersma, Pieter: photography
Chopin, Henri: collection
Dibbets, Karel: media research
Haan, Tristan: catalogue editor, historical research
Hoeneveld, Herman: production
Huisman, Zegert: media research
Jong, Rudolf de: collection
Nijenhuis, Tineke: collection
Oostrom, Bruce van: photography
Ravensteijn, Leopold van: media research
Ruller, Jaap van: production
Tijen, Tjebbe van: cinema curator, documentation
Toorn, Jan van: graphic design
Waterbolk, Niek: production
Wessing, Koen: photography

organizations
BEL Bruxelles, La Ligne Générale: content provider
FRA Paris, Les États Généraux du Cinéma : content provider
FRA Paris, Nouveaux Printemps: supporter
FRA Paris, SNESUP : content provider
NLD Amsterdam
NLD Amsterdam, International Institute of Social History : organizer
NLD Amsterdam, Seminarie voor Massapsychologie Universiteit van Amsterdam : supporter
NLD Amsterdam, Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam : accommodator, supporter
NLD Amsterdam, Studentenvereniging Machiavelli UvA: supporter
NLD Utrecht, Geluidsarchief Instituut voor Geschiedenis UvU: supporter
NLD Utrecht, Stichting Film en Wetenschap : supporter media research

where/when
locations
(1969) NLD Amsterdam, Museum Fodor


1966; Des membres de l’Internationale situationniste et des étudiants de Strasbourg; De la misère en milieu étudiant : considérée sous ses aspects économique, politique, psychologique, sexuel et notamment intellectuel et de quelques moyenspour y remédier; (On the poverty of student life : considered in its economic, political, psychological, sexual and particularly intellectual aspects, and modest proposals for its remedy) There are links to on-libe versions of both the French and the English text of this classic pamphlet..

1969; Haan, Tristan; Parijs , mei-juni ' 68 : tentoonstelling onder auspiciën van het Internationaal Instituut voor Sociale Geschiedenis; one of the first serious documentations of the French Mai/June 68 movement, with explanations of the many organisations, groups and groupscules (taxonomie of a forest of acronyms); all material can be found in the archives of the IISG, though no concordance register has been made to my knowledge between the archives and the catlogue; a great pitty that all this information is only available in Dutch.

1983; Mémoires de 68 : guide des sources d'une histoire à faire; (Memories of 68, source guide for a history to be made) Published a quarter of a century after the events. The guide is a collaborative project of the Bureau de Documentation Internationale Contemporain (BDIC) and the Association "Mémoires de 68". It list collections both in the public and privat sphere..

1987; Bibliothèque nationale (France). Service de l'histoire de France; Les Tracts de mai 1968; 10.067 tracts (leaflets/handouts) collected by the Biblioteque National de France have been microfilmed by the Ditch frim Inter Doucmentation Company in Leiden. They are indexed and ordered in the following categrories: Paris, Monde Etudiant et Lyceen; Comités ; Organisations Syndicales; Mouvements et Partis Politiques; Tracts communs signés par diverses organisations; Affichettes diverses illustrées et no inllustrées; Region Parisienne (Ile-de-France); Province..
14

What & Why
A manifesto that called for a debate on the function of world fairs and the role of artists, designers and architects in these undertakings:

“None of the 62 World’s Fairs which have been held took place in the Third World except for those in Lima (1872), Santiago de Chile (1875), Bombay (1887),Hanoi (1902) and Rio de Janeiro(1922).”

“The World‘s Fairs have become Olympian demonstrations of national ideals. Ideals formed by Power monopolies which use their own norms as a standard to determine the freedom of other people, although these same norms are inadequate to allow for freedom within the system where the power monopoly exists.”


“Don’t the World’s Fairs force themselves upon us as manifestations of the ”freedom” to have to produce things for which there is no need and to have to consume what we were forced to produce?
Don‘t artists, designers and architects give the World Fairs a “cultural image“ and aren‘t they being (mis)used to present a sham freedom?”.

The manifesto gives a short overview of the history of world fairs with the national industrial exhibition in Paris in 1798 as a forerunner. It reminds the reader that at first there were no national pavilions, but big buildings that would express world unity, like the Crystal Palace of 1851 in London and the construction in Paris in 1867 that resembled a globe. In 1893 this architectural expression of unity changed when the idea of national pavilions was introduced with the World’s Fair of Chicago.

The manifesto has been send around all over the world, often inserted in supportive art magazines. people were asked to start a debate in their own circle and send reactions either pro or contra to the address of the writers of the manifesto, who would assemble these reactions in the form of a publication. This last idea did not realize in those pre-Internet days, were the cost of postage and the limited means for copying gave everything another dimension.

The manifesto has also been debated at the Amsterdam Fodor conference on the social role of artists, technicians and scientists, the so-called ‘Fodor Conferences’ (see event 12). To my knowledge there were only a few public statements against participating in the Osaka fair, one by the Dutch architect Piet Blom who refused an invitation to participate in June 1968: “That exhibition is a demonstration of power”.

The much admired Experiments in Art and Technology group (EAT) from New York did not have such criticisms, they used Osaka as an opportunity to realize some of their art and technology integration ideas through the work on the Pepsi pavilion.


Manifesto against World Expo in Osaka 1968-69
Tjebbe van Tijen (author)
Nic Tummers (author)
4 contributing persons
2 contributing organizations
1 locations

who
persons
Clay, Jean: support
Latham (Steveni), Barbara: support
Tijen, Tjebbe van: concept, campaigning
Tummers, Nic: concept, campaigning

organizations
FRA Paris, Robho revue: distributor
GBR London, Artist Placement Group (APG): distributor

where/when
locations
(1968-1969) MN4 , Distribution of manifesto: through magazines (foldd-ins), bookshops and at conferences


1968; Tijen, Tjebbe van/Tummers, Nic; Osaka manifest : "progress and harmony for mankind"; full text of manifesto ....

1972; Klüver, Billy/Martin, Julie/Rose, Barbara; Pavilion by Experiments in Art and Technology; detgailed account of the EAT involvement in the Pepsi-Cola pavlion at the Expo '70 in Oska Japan. In the vision of Klüver "The artist is a positive force in perceiving how technology can be translated to new environments to serve needs and provide variety and enrichment of life".
15

what
On Saturday November 22 1969 the theater play “Toller” by Tankred Dorst had its first night in the municipal theater of Amsterdam, the Stadsschouwburg. The theater play is by the German playwright Tankred Dorst and is loosely based on the experiences of the main figure Ernst Toller who was a participant of the revolutionary movement in München in 1991, known as the Münchener Räterepublik (Munich council republic). This ‘council republic’ based on spontaneously formed assemblies of workers and soldiers, only had a short existence. It has to face attacks from both right and left, the last exemplified by the early German Communist Party. The revolutionary republic falls, several of its leaders are imprisoned, some murdered.

A group of people who feels closely related to the ideas of workers councils is informed several months before on this new play and its planned performance in Amsterdam. They study the script and do not agree with the way this historical event will be represented on stage. Two of them manage to get a job as supernumerary in the play. Thus plans develop for the disruption and stopping of the play. At the first night several activists have bought a ticket for the performance and go in equipped with smoke and stink bombs and leaflets against the theater play.

The two supernumerary actors will give the sign for protest when jumping of stage with their red flags. This happens, smoke bombs are triggered, slogans chanted, leaflets distributed. The fire curtain lowers, the stage is closed off and some debate between public and activists takes place. The play is interrupted for an hour or so, the activists leave the premises and the Toller play is performed after all.

why
There are a lot of apocadictic statements in the following long quotation from one of the leaflets that was distributed at the first night of the ‘Toller’ play. By translating it now in 2005, thirty six years later, I am confronted with its unpleasant sloganism and poor way of argumentation. Though I did not work on this particular text, I did write another leaflet a few days later that is, at the level of what is meant to be communicated, of the same order. More important is the question of censorship that is raised by this action and one can not escape to say something about it, be it in hindsight... But first the text to get in the mood of that time:

====================
“THERE IS NO MORE TIME for
theater, museum, concert, film, radio, television.

These are the products of bureaucratic capitalism (maoism, titoism, castroism, russian communism) and for the indoctrination of people.
Because this culture has as its only goal to breed passive, consuming civilians, to convince them of their own dependency.
This exploitation is always proposed as something self-evident and other options for this authoritarian capitalist society are ridiculed.

THIS CULTURE IS REPRESSION!

the relaxation and soothing after a day of work.

That is why each democratization, modernization or improvement of theater or culture is SENSELESS! it only means a perfect ionizing of the repressive system.
The function of this culture is only to uphold the existing situation. For sure the modern, experimental, ‘revolutionary’ theater, that cankers all that could be of importance for the revolution, by inflating it into a spectacle and offering that as a farce to the bourgeoisie.

In the theater play ‘Toller’ the ‘Bayern council republic’ is presented as a whim of a few hallucinating idealists, leading necessarily to a failure. It shows the inability of man to organize himself and the indispensability of central power; to allow the theater softies (here the Dutch word ‘slijmer’ is used, literally ‘a slimy person’ tj.) to go home reassured, with their prejudices strengthened.

THAT IS WHY EACH PERFORMANCE OF THIS PLAY MUST BE MADE IMPOSSIBLE !!

This is not an action that wants to discuss about theater. Toller may not be performed because ‘power to the (workers) councils’ is impossible on stage and contrary to the idea of ‘working councils’ itself, that is already cancered by trade unions and the bosses, because they continue their same system using the name of workers councils.”
==========

To start with the last, rather unclear sentence, this was a reference to the other side of the leaflet - most probably written by our/my old friend and 'council communist' Gerard van de Berg who blasts away in his strong agit prop jargon that originates in the thirties of last century - by mentioning "buffoon and blarney" Marius Broekmeyer (of the East-Europe Institute of the University of Amsterdam) together with his symposium on the Yugoslavian 'workers councils' as a possible model for the situation in the Netherlands. This academic exercise between social scientists and some social democrat trade union leaders was depicted in the anti-Toller leaflet as "treacherous corporate compromise". Several of the people who were involved in the action against the Toller play had also protested and disrupted the symposium of Broekmeyer a few months before. The performance of the Toller play was seen as yet another attack on the idea of 'workers councils'.

The model of 'workers councils' as a form of revolutionary self organization that grows from daily practice and struggle in factories, workshops, schools and neighbourhoods, has a strong link with the Netherlands. One of its main theoreticians was the Dutch socialist and professor of astronomy Anton Pannekoek. He and his comrade in arms the poet Herman Gorter had been the first to critizise the dangers of centralistic state control in the Soviet Union, already in 1921. They placed the free association of self-organized workers councils in the foreground and were critical of authoritarian party politics. In 1969 many people in the West that professed to be left wing were still - in some way or another - supportive of 'state socialist' practice in countries like the Soviet Union, China, Cuba or Yugoslavia, though many people were not any longer blind for the totalitarian aspects of these regimes. Hungary 1956 had sown the first doubts and the repression of 1968 in Czechoslovakia had just happened. The Soviet Union did not represent anymore a promising future. Some young people embraced China or Cuba or any Third World country that professed socialism as the example for a better world, others felt more attracted toward libertarian forms of socialism. The idea of 'workers councils' offered an attractive alternative: self-organization from below for a better society. Also one could recognize and test in one's own practice, in my case as a squatter and neighbourhood activist, the validity of the theory.

This explains the fervor with which the workers council idea had been embraced. Next came the defense of the purity of this idea of workers councils that, apparently, had been raised to the level of an ideology. In religious terms the representation of workers councils in the play by Tankred Dorst was nothing less than "blasphemy". Though debating and banning are things of a different order, they did get mixed up in our practice in the year 1969. One may use the word censorship or even the term 'terror' but it was not by anonymous bomb threats, or secret acts of sabotage that the Toller play was disrupted. Those who opposed it came in person, sat between the public, set of smoke and stink bombs, handed out leaflets, publicly discussed. Together with my friend Pieter Boersma I had been a supernumerary actor in the Toller play, and had rehearsed for several months before jumping from stage with my red flag - during a revolutionary mass scene - as a sign for our allies in the audience. The two deserting actors, smoke bombs, leafletting, shouting, discussions and one incident whereby an enraged actor confronted a demonstrator in the audience with his physical power, all that did only stop the performance for an hour or so. After the ventilators had cleansed the space and the majority of the audience had expressed their wish to continue the play, most demonstrators had left the theater and the Toller play was brought to an end. No arrests have been made during or after this incident.

It also needs to be reminded that the action against the Toller play took place in a period when several theater companies in the Netherlands and especially the more traditional oriented 'Nederlandse Comedie' had been targeted by a group of drama students that took the name "Actiegroep Tomaat". This because of the opening act of their protest period of five months (from October 1969 to February 1970) with throwing of tomatoes at the stage during a Shakespeare performance, in the same theater were the Toller action took place. These drama students were primarily concerned with what they saw as an outdated drama practice, they tried in all kind of ways to provoke discussions with theater directors and actors. The Toller action has often been mixed up with these events and some of the Actiegroep Tomaat members continued our one time action with disruptive activities during a second Amsterdam staging of the Toller play in December 1969.

Last odd detail: the Flemish director of the Toller play, Walter Tillemans, who witnessed the actions and protest at the opening night in Amsterdam in November, gets shortly afterward involved himself in direct action against the theater establishment in Brussels when a group of experimental actors (de Werkgemeenschap) gets in conflict with the management of the Beursschouwburg. The theater is occupied and a black flag hung out. Tillemans supported this action.



Toller action - revolutie is geen theater 1969
(revolution is no theatre)

collective undertaking
20 contributing persons
1 contributing organizations
1 locations

who
persons
Berg, Gerard van de: activist
Berg, Han Bentz van den: actor
Boersma, Pieter: activist, supernumerary
Bouman, Tom: activist
Brandenburg, Paul: actor
Breuker, Willem: composer of taped music for Toller play
Davidson, Steef: activist
Dorst, Tankred: playwright
Eissens, Josien: activist
Feggelen, Finy van: activist
Hamel, Maxim: actor
Lucieer, Rudolf: actor
Oster, Guus: theatre director
Rijn, Cor van: actor
Schuurman, Otto: activist
Stolk, Rob: activist
Tijen, Tjebbe van: activist, supernumerary
Tillemans, Walter: stage director
Verlaan, Tony: activist
Wessing, Koen: photography

organizations
NLD Amsterdam, Nederlandse Comedie: opposed institution

where/when
locations
(1969) NLD Amsterdam, Stadsschouwburg


1969; REVOLUTIE IS GEEN TEATER!!; some leaflets of the anti-Toller action as played by the Nederlandse Comedie.

1969; Dossier with newspaper clippings on Toller action; {smoke bombs and leaflets in Amsterdam theatre ...).

1979; Deddes, Ingrid; Tomaat documentatie; documentation of actions against 'drama policy' of Dutch theatres, 1969-1970, including the 'Toller action.
16

what
During one week a series of playful and cultural festivities was organized in the Amsterdam Nieuwmarktbuurt in which many volunteers from all kind of social and cultural backgrounds took part. The initiative was taken by the “aktiegroep Nieuwmarkt (action group ..) that had been active for two years in this neighbourhood that had on the drawing boards of the municipal planners already been wiped of the map. To boost the resistance and the local morale these festivities were organized, initiated by squatters and their supporters. At first there had been some mistrust on the part of the local population, but with the help of a few original inhabitants who recognized that the neighbourhood was almost doomed and that such social activity could help in changing that, many more people joined in.

A former factory hall (De Smederij/Smithy) had been converted in a cultural center and also many street activities took place. The action group had already for four years published a regular weekly newspaper called ‘Nieuwsmarkt’ that conveyed the latest critical news on the town planners undertakings, interviews with older people, photo reportage, poetry and the like. The print shop was also based in the Nieuwmarkt neighbourhood and helped also with leaflets, flyers and posters. This print shop had been started by people who had been active in the Dutch provo movement in the mid sixties.

In the same neighbourhood some collective carpenters and construction workshops had been set up that helped out with setting things up for the festivities. Also there was a workshop of the artists that formed the Event Structure Research Group (ERG) that followed up the earlier group called Sigma Projekten. They joined the festivities with some inflatables, one of them being made for a movie by the French American filmmaker William Klein Mr., Freedom. This was a huge inflatable dragon that proved a nice play thing for the kids of the neighbourhood.

What was most interesting in the program of that week was the combination of very traditional cultural forms like small orchestras, opera singing, and brass bands with outside movie shows, school children making hand painted posters, inflatables and the outside projection of independent movies and p slides by photographers living in the neighbourhood.

why
Amsterdam had decided in 1968 to build its first underground system that would have four lines: East, West, North and South. As the subsoil of Amsterdam is very soft and muddy there was at that time not a technique to go underneath the existing buildings. So were an underground/metro line was planned everything had to be demolished, as the building method that was chosen used a system of caissons that would be build over ground and then sunk underground by pumping away the soil below.

Because of this there had been fierce debates on the trajectory. The first line was going to be the east line that would connect the new suburb in the Bijlmermeer polder with the Central Station. The first part of the trajectory was going parallel with former railway tracks and a street (part of the former Jewish neighbourhood around the Weesperstraat) that had been widened after World war II. Once in the old town the line was planned to make a wide curve to arrive in front of the Central Station in such a way that the planned West line part could be attached without problems. This meant that it had to make a curve that did cut straight through the Nieuwmarktbuurt that had a fanlike structure of small streets. This neighbourhood had also suffered from the tragic fate of its mainly Jewish inhabitants during the German occupation, but still it had many historical small houses left and several blocks of houses of very good quality that had been build in the thirties of last century. There were other options by routing the underground line through a nearby canal but the arrogance of the planners made that this alternative was bluntly refused.

In a slow process of several years the population of the neighbourhood had been forced into thinking that nothing could be done against these municipal plans. There was a local committee of original inhabitants, but their policy was just the amount of compensation money to be paid after a forced removal to another part of town.

The underground plan was not the only threat to the neighbourhood. On top of the new underground line a highway for cars was planned that would be bordered by rather high office buildings making one big urban wound with some historic houses at the fringes.

This situation combined with a constant crisis especially for young people to get proper housing. So they knew the housing question and at the same time saw how good or usable houses, a whole neighbourhood was going to be destroyed in a wider process that forced people to go and live in the suburbs and daily commute elsewhere to their work. There always had been squatters in the town, but this was mostly in a half secret way. The Provo movement in the mid sixties changed this attitude and several people related to this movement started a squatting organization in 1967/1968. The Nieuwmarkt became one of their focal points and led to a wider involvement than just solving their own housing problem.

Nieuwmarkt Feesten Amsterdam 1971
(neighbourhood festival)

collective undertaking
41 contributing persons
3 contributing organizations
4 locations

who
persons
Beeren, Gerrit van: support
Berg, Gerard van de: radio
Boersma, Pieter: slide projection
Botschuyver, Theo: inflatables
Bouwman, Tom: reportage
Breebaert, Dick: production
cafe, Wouter (Jazz cafe): jazz podium
Clement, Muriel: production
Davidson, Steef: organizer
Elsken, Ed van der: slide projection
Francken, Wim: carillonneur
Haas, Polo de: pianist
Hak, Koos: singer
Harn, Piet van: organizer
Heemskerk, Willem: production
Hoeben, Max: poet
Hofman, Hannes: organizer
Hofman, Tini: organizer
Jansens, Magda: story teller
Jong, Jan de: production
Jozef, : children's activities
Keuken, Johan van der: film projection
Landkroon, Jan: guitarist
Leen, Tante: singer
Merwen, Jaap van der: singer
Mona, : children's activities
Mullens, Harry: magician
Nimwegen, Lou van: printer
Onderwater, Jelle: singer
Poncia, Klaas: organizer
Post, Leo: singer
Rietveld, Marieke: support
Rijn, Cor van: standing-up comedian
Schat, Peter: singer
Schiks, Carine: singer
Shaw, Jeffrey: inflatables
Stolk, Rob: printer
Stranger, Miek: organizer, singer
Tamminga, Mini: production
Tijen, Tjebbe van: organizer
Zijl, Sietze: organizer

organizations
NLD Amsterdam, Buurtcentrum De Boomsspijker: organizer
NLD Amsterdam, Event Structure Research Group (ERG): supporter
NLD Amsterdam, Wijkcentrum d'Oude Stadt : subsidiser

where/when
locations
(1971) NLD Amsterdam, De Smederij
(1971) NLD Amsterdam, Koningsstraat (Nieuwmarkt)
(1971) NLD Amsterdam, Nieuwmarkt (plein/square)
(1971) NLD Amsterdam, Nieuwmarkt (speel plein/play ground)


1968/1969; Klein, William; Mister Freedom; Poster for movie for which the Event Structure Research group made an inflatable dragon.

1971; Nieuwsmarkt no.15; Weekly neighbourhood paper for neigbourhoods around Nieuwmarkt, Amsterdam. This is a special pictorial reportage of the festivities in June..

1984; Nijenhuis, Tineke; de beste aktiegroep ter wereld ..." : 40 dorpsverhalen uit de Nieuwmarkt; (the best action group in the world ...) 40 interviews with activists, supporters, outsiders, observers and targeted officials all related to ten years of conflicts and creativity in the Amsterdam Nieuwmarkt neighbourhood. How cultural festivities became a part of the struggle...
17

what
A huge map of the whole new underground/metro line from the Eastern suburb Bijlmermeer through the old center of Amsterdam, including the Nieuwmarktbuurt, to the Central Station. On this map (scale 1:2000) each planned subway station was indicated and all building plans, real estate deals and other urban influences. Each sport had a color code on the map and a number. All along the map documentation dossiers on each case were attached (with rubber bands) so the public could study each case in detail.

A series of diagrams and maps showed the wider impact of such heavy infrastructure for public transport. Comparisons with the more flexible tramway system as it exists in Amsterdam and how that could be improved where made. Also local history was told in a serious of photo panels with big letter captions.

This ’museum’ has been an important tool for generating public debate. A detailed report was published in the same time that retook several of these maps and graphics. It was further based on an official government inquiry into the case of the Nieuwmarktbuurt that had been held to somehow calm down the growing support for the actions against the trajectory of the underground straight through a historical neighbourhood of the inner town.



Het Echte Metro Museum 1974-1976
(the real metro museum)

collective undertaking
23 contributing persons
4 contributing organizations
3 locations

who
persons
Anyas, Ernest: photography
Bakker, Henk: editorial work
Bakker, Klaas: research
Beeren, Gerrit van: support
Beerling, Dane: graphic design, illustrations
Beumer, Mieke: graphic design
Bijlsma, Auke: research
Boersma, Pieter: photography
Boshard, Antonia: lettering
Brouwer, Ruud: magazine editor, supporter
Davidson, Steef: organiser
Eissens, Josien: production
Jong, Jan de: production
Kraaijvanger, Hubert: production
Kupka, Karl: research
Marsch, Sjon ter: photography, production
Morel, Huib: object construction
Nimwegen, Lou van: production
Os, Hans van: construction
Schuiling, Dick: research
Stolk, Rob: printer
Tijen, Tjebbe van: cartography, production, research
Wibaut, Josje: support

organizations
NLD Amsterdam, Gemeentearchief Amsterdam : content provider
NLD Amsterdam, Stichting De Straat: supporter
NLD Amsterdam, Stichting Goed Wonen : accommodator, supporter
NLD Amsterdam, Wijkcentrum d'Oude Stadt : supporter

where/when
locations
(1974-1975) NLD Amsterdam, squatted space Keizersstraat
(1974) NLD Amsterdam, Stichting Goed Wonen, Leidsestraat
(1976) NLD Amsterdam, squatted space Waterlooplein


1958-1969; Internationale situationniste (reprint of journal); Articles on the creative construction of 'situations' and criticism on alienating urban developments (Urbanisme Unitaire), inspirational for squatter movement in the Amsterdam Nieuwmarkt.

1972; Tijen, Tjebbe van/Brouwers, Ruud (editior); De organisatie van de algemene afzondering; (The organization of generalized isolation) special issue of TABK, journal for architecture and art, on social effects of heavy public transport infrastructure in several cities world wide.

1974; Aktiegroep Nieuwmarkt; Metrorapport van de Nieuwmarkt; Report on social and economic consequences of the new Amsterdam underground system, with detailed mapping of property specualtion around planned subway stations.

1975; Het verbeelden van bouwplannen (visualization of building plans); Brochure Amsterdam Nieuwmarkt action group with ideas for representing new urban and architectural plans.
18

how


Yurt construction Anti-City Circus/UNCSTD 1978-1979
collective undertaking
4 contributing persons
1 contributing organizations
2 locations

who
persons
Baanders, Bert: construction
Marsch, Sjon ter: construction, photography
Schuurman, Otto: construction
Tijen, Tjebbe van: initiator, construction

organizations
NLD Amsterdam, Zomerstraat Theater/Theaterstraat : supporter

where/when
locations
(1978) NLD Amsterdam, Waterlooplein occupied land
(1979) AUT Wien, Alternative UNO Conference on Science and Technology for Development (UNCSTD): Prater


1973; Kahn, Lloyd; Shelter; pictuires and plans for hand build houses, tents, domes and nomadic living, including a new mathematical 'yurt' system.

1979; Anti-City-Circus; photo reportage of manifestation and free constructions on the occupied grounds of the Amsterdam Waterlooplein.
19

Celdroom1983-1985
(prison dream)

Tjebbe van Tijen (author)
12 contributing persons
10 contributing organizations
2 locations

who
persons
Amende, Frans: support
Boersma, Pieter: photography
Braches, Ernst: support
Eissens, Josien: translation German/Dutch
Gaehme, Tita: inspirator
Hahn, Chris: translation German/Dutch
Hall, van: translation German/Dutch
Jonigkeit, Elke: filmmaker
Kaagman, Hugo: pictogram design
Kaminski, Harmuth: filmmaker
Tijen, Tjebbe van: concept, production
Zouteriks, Cock: construction, support

organizations
DEU Köln, Stadtarchiv Köln: content provider
NLD Amsterdam, : organizer
NLD Amsterdam, Amsterdams Historisch Museum : lending of historical prison objects
NLD Amsterdam, Criminologisch Instituut Universiteit vcan Amsterdam: content provider
NLD Amsterdam, De Pleinwerker : organizer
NLD Amsterdam, Oost-Europa Instituut: content provider
NLD Amsterdam, Radio 100 : broadcaster
NLD Amsterdam, Rijksinstituut voor Oorlogsdocumentatie (RIOD): content provider
NLD Amsterdam, Universiteitsbibliotheek Amsterdam : accommodator, content provider
NLD Amsterdam, Wijkcentrum d'Oude Stadt : supporter

where/when
locations
(1983) NLD Amsterdam, Pleinwerker
(1985) NLD Amsterdam, Universiteitsbibliotheek Amsterdam


1943/1962; Randwijk, H.M. van (1908-1966) ; Celdroom : een gedicht uit het oorlogsjaar 1943; originally published during WWII by Dutch underground press .

1975/1979; Foucault, Michel (1926-1984); Discipline and punish : the birth of the prison; the structure of the exhibition was based on Foucault's analysis.

1983; Huiskes, Manfred; Die Wandinschriften des Kölner Gestapo-Gefängnisses im EL-DE-Haus 1943-1945; prison wall graffiti from the Gestapo prison in Köln.

1983-1985; Celdroom : newspaper clippings dossier
20



what
A one day manifestation on ’free cultural spaces’ organized in a squatted space ‘De Pleinwerker’ (the worker of the square) located at the Waterlooplein in the center of Amsterdam. An exhibition with examples from the Netherlands and other countries of ‘free cultural space’ initiatives, together with a meeting of people active in such initiatives. Short visualized presentations by fifteen or so people, followed by discussions.

The space had a kind of cat walk with at one side the projection screen and at the other side a cello player that conducted in a pleasant way the allotted time for each speaker. When the speaker started to go over her or his time, the cello player would start to play very softly, indicating that also others needed time for their presentation.

The exhibition gave both Dutch and international examples of ‘free cultural spaces’ in cities like London, Milano, Köln, Warsaw, and Copenhagen.

Later this exhibition was made in a new form with huge scrolls with text image collage produced by using an architectural blue print machine. These scrolls were made for an event five years later in the Casa Culturale in Milano, a conference on European experiences with cultural projects in an urban context.

In 1992 these two experiences were used as a basis for a more theoretical text on free cultural spaces, published in Dutch and also available as an on-line text. This text has not yet been translated, so only available in Dutch.

why
This is the text of the big size manifesto that was published in 1984 to announce the manifestation on ‘free cultural spaces’:


“The town is a battlefield of many opposing forces
whoever has power has space.

Many are passive, content with what is allotted to them, others are active and create their own living space.

The development of self initiative to solve the housing question is widely known and assumed a definite shape in the years after World War II.

Less known is how at the same time next to housing spaces for self creativity have been conquered:
- in the streets
- on walls
- in buildings
- in the aether (radio and tv)

FREE CULTURAL SPACES

Factories, prisons, offices, barracks, churches, ware houses and shops are changed in spaces experimenting with own forms of management.

Different art and cultural forms coincide and mix. Frontiers between culture producers and consumers fade away.

Not a product of official cultural policy, but:
- conquered by self activity
- self initiated
- often without the necessary permits.

Some of these initiatives are recognized by the authorities (be it in an unengaged way). The majority is only condoned, as long as they do not obstruct profitable plans or cause ‘offence’.

TOLERATED CULTURAL SPACES

In Amsterdam there are about one hundred, in the rest of the Netherlands tens of them, likewise in other countries.”


Vrije Culturele Ruimtes 1984-1992
(free cultural spaces)

collective undertaking
13 contributing persons
2 contributing organizations
2 locations

who
persons
Boersma, Pieter: photography
Bonomi, Aldo: commissionar
Kaagman, Hugo: pictogram design, speaker
Moroni, Primo: support
Ozon, Diana: production, speaker
Panhuysen, Paul: speaker
Piromalli, Aldo: translation Dutch/Italian
Tijen, Tjebbe van: concept, production, speaker
Tol, Bas van: pictogram design
Veen, Gerda van der: photography
Vermeij, Eef: production
Wahedi, Mazdak: production
Zouteriks, Cock: concept, production

organizations
ITA Milano, AASTER : inviting organization
NLD Amsterdam, De Pleinwerker : initiator

where/when
locations
(1984) NLD Amsterdam, Pleinwerker
(1985) ITA Milano, Casa Culturale


1984; De Pleinwerker (square worker); activity report of squatted cultural center next to the Amsterdam Waterlooplein.

1992; Gebroken Wit : politiek van kleine verhalen (Dimmed white, policy of small stories/recits); Book based on a theme by Lyotard with a chapter by Tjebbe van Tijen on "Free culural spaces".
21

what/why
From the English summary of the guide:

“Building a different society can‘t be done just by using technology differently. We have to relate differently, to each other, and each other’s surroundings and concerns.

There are many, various efforts to do this; and there are steps to stop them. This guide lists many sources of information about them all: alternative, conservative, official, revolutionary, spiritual. Information about power and powerlesness, over- and underdevelopment, far and near. And inspiration to look beyond the current geopolitical scenarios of countries divided into the power blocks of first, second and third worlds. To see how each country harbours conflicts, inequality and oppression, that change has to start within.

Information on 300 groups and organizations in the Netherlands and elsewhere, listing their origins, objectives, networking links, activities, publications, audiovisuals, exhibition materials and library and documentation facilities. Through their networks, you can contact many more groups.
audiovisual catalogues, handbooks and other qui-rlps anrt audiovisual catalogues, handbooks and other guides and directories, from and about dozens of countries. The wealth of information in this guide is extensively indexed, on acronyms, names, places, journals, keywords and countries.

On page 25 is a list of countries english/dutch and the abbreviations used in this guide. The name index can of course be used without knowledge of dutch. Some words of main interest in the keyword index are: agriculture = landbouw; appropriate technology = aangepaste technologie; development = ontwikkeling(s) ; education = onderwijs; energy = energie; environment = milieu; libraries = bibliotheken; pollution = vervuiling; renewable energy = duurzame energie; small scale = kleinschaligheid; solar energy = zonne-energie; wind energy = windenergie.”

This was the last bibliographical project done without a computer. An immense work based on a ‘paper computer system’ with small forms and a numbering system that made it possible to make all the complex indexes (showing relationships between organizations). The production process was in fact computer like, with small typed paper strips each with a descriptive entry, sorted by hand, numbered and indexed on hundreds of small pieces of paper. The typing was done with a IBM electrical typewriter with changeable ‘heads’ that allowed for different typeface and size.



Andere informatiebronnen 1984->
(other information sources)
collective undertaking
8 contributing persons
5 contributing organizations
2 locations

who
persons
Arkel, Jan van: publisher
Baanders, Bert: cartography
Boshard, Antonia: editorial production
Klundert, Arnold van der: initiator
Luns, Martijn: lay-out framework
Marsch, Sjon ter: cover photography
Penner, Reinaldo: editorial production
Tijen, Tjebbe van: cartography, concept, editor, paper database system, production

organizations
NLD Amsterdam, Leeszaal voor de bevrijding van de Consument: production support
NLD Amsterdam, Projekt Alternatieven voor Samenleving en technologie (PAST), Stichting: organizer
NLD Amsterdam, Stichting TOOl : organizer
NLD Amsterdam, Tropenmuseum : supporter
NLD Utrecht, Ekologische Uitgeverij : publisher

where/when
locations
(1983) NLD Amsterdam, Tropenmuseum
(1984->) NLD , Distribution of book: in the Netherlands and international


1982; Odé, Johannes/Klundert, Arnold van der; De andere markt, projekt voor alternatieven in samenleving en technologie; manifestation and exhibtion at the Tropical Museum Amsterdam that triggered the project for 'Other information sources'.

1984; Andere informatiebronnen over milieu , techniek en samenleving (Other information soruces on environment, technology and socitety); a reference work.
22

what
A database system at first developed for personal computers using the DOS operating system with Dbase as the database program. Later versions were using the more flexible Clipper system.

Documentation system for singular or grouped documents, based on a combination of general formalized and specific unique descriptors. The formalized descriptors (something in the order of a keyword) forms the controlled language part of the database. These descriptors can be accessed through a series of pop-up menus, so the user does not have to type the same words all the time. A series of inter connected dictionaries with such descriptors make it possible to give only the relevant words at each stage of making a catalogue record. Specific words, names and the like are also stored and ca in a similar way be retrieved by using a pop-up menu. The adage of the system is: “once typed, do not type it again”.

From the beginning their had been the idea to also include visual elements as descriptors, and store digital facsimile of at least some parts of the documents or groups of documents. Due to technical limitations this only became possible in the nineties of last century. In the early stages of the project scanners were extremely rare and expensive, also the storage capacity of the computers used at that time was minimal (the first PC in the CSD department had a 20 MB hard disc). The ideas of storing also some form of representation or samples of sound and movies were there, but it is only now (2005) that such a thing is possible without too much problems on a personal computer.

Over the years about 10.000 descriptions have been made in the CLAVIS system, from which indexes with approximate 500.000 entries are generated.

The system has been used first in CSD department of the University Library of Amsterdam and later also in the International Institute of Social History in Amsterdam that took over this archive in 1990. The system has also been used by an alternative archive of squatters and neighbourhood action in Amsterdam ‘Het Staatsarchief’ and modules of the CLAVIS system have been integrated in all kind of special project databases like for ‘Europe Against The Current’ and ‘Next 5 Minutes’ (video database).

why
CLAVIS is the acronym for Controlled Language Archive Visual Information System (sometimes the A is translated as Audio). It is a database system developed at first for the Documentation Center of Modern Social Movements at the University Library of Amsterdam (abbreviated as CSD). The University Library had its own computer catalogue system, based on the MARC system (Machine-Readable Cataloging) of the Library of Congress in Washington since 1972, but this in-house made mainframe system was at first only oriented at standard library material: books and periodicals. The materials collected for CSD department were for a great part non-book and non-periodical materials of all kind: posters, handouts, flyers, newspaper clippings, gramophone records, audio and video tapes, buttons, postcards, slides, photographs and dossiers on specific subjects containing a variety of materials from manuscripts and correspondence to all kind of printed materials. At that time the university computer catalogue system was not yet facilitating documentation of such materials. As personal computers slowly became available in the mid eighties of last century, a new option came in. Instead of waiting for a decade or more (one must remind the perspective on technological change at that time) for the rigid central university system to be ready for flexible forms of documentation, it could be tried to make one’s own system on a personal computer. So it happened that in 1985 I had one of the first personal computers standing next to the mainframe terminal on my desk in the library. Even better, I bought myself the same system for usage at home.

An intensive period of learning the basics of data basing and first attempts to put them to practice soon resulted in some working modules. An issue form the beginning was how to integrate or at least use or recycle data from the big mainframe system in the small personal computer system. In a few years time this was possible on a limited level (retrieving data from the MARC system into the CLAVIS system).

In the decade before, library, archive and documentation work of the CD department had already been systematized by developing a documentation system of small preprinted paper forms that was used for several documentation projects. This system was partly inspired by a paper form system developed for appropriate technology and development work in “Third World” countries called SATIS (Socially Appropriate Technology International Information Services). So before starting to develop a computer database system, ’paper database’ systems were in use. Formalization of data in the form of codified descriptors had already been developed, with documentation codes like: kind of information carrier, geographic information origin and subject, a set of content rubrics for singular documents or a grouping of documents. This was the basis for the ‘controlled language’ part of the system.

Controlled Language Audio Visual Information System 1986-1998 (CLAVIS)
Tjebbe van Tijen (author)
8 contributing persons
3 contributing organizations
2 locations

who
persons
Amende, Frans: support
Beumer, Mieke: iconographic advice
Braches, Ernst: support
Graaf, Midas van der: software development
Hoef, Jan van der: documentalist
Hudrisier, Henri: inspirator
Kraan, Peter van der Pouw: software advice
Tijen, Tjebbe van: concept, documentalist, software development

organizations
NLD Amsterdam, International Institute of Social History : employer, user
NLD Amsterdam, Staatsarchief: user
NLD Amsterdam, Universiteitsbibliotheek Amsterdam : employer, user

where/when
locations
(1986-1990) NLD Amsterdam, Universiteitsbibliotheek Amsterdam
(1990-1998) NLD Amsterdam, International Institute of Social History


1983; Hudrisier, Henri; L'Iconothèque; pioneering publication on audio-visual databases and 'interactive visualization'.

1983; Tijen, Tjebbe van; Handleiding bij een niet geheel universeel sisteem kaartje; Manual for usage/coficications of pre-computer, paper database system with A6 size forms, used in several documentatie projects and publications.

1996; Tijen, Tjebbe van /Graaf, Midas de; CLAVIS represented in an office metaphor; diagram explaining the functioning of CLAVIS by using pictures of paper office equipment.

1998; Schaffner, Ingrid/a.o.; Deep storage : Arsenale der Erinnerung : Sammeln, Speichern , Archivieren in der Kunst; In this catalogue/book also an interview by Geert Lovink with Tjebbe van Tijen about his library and archive wor, first published in Mediamatic.

1988; Sierman, Koosje; De Geheugenbewaarders (memory keepers); Illustrated weekly magazine Vrij Nederland with an interview about the Documentation Center of Modern Social Movements of the Amsterdam University Library.
23

Het IJ Geopend de Binnenstad Gedicht 1986
(visualizing urban plans for Amsterdam for inner town and harbour)

collective undertaking
20 contributing persons
3 contributing organizations
3 locations

who
persons
Aerschot, Rob van: research
Berg, Marjet van de: management
Boersma, Pieter: concept, photography
Eissens, Josien: interviews, production
Hans, Job: concept, inspirator, production
Kloos, Maarten
Kraaijvanger, Hubert: photography
Kraan, Peter van der Pouw: database design
Kransberg, Dorian: photographic production
Morel, Huib: object construction
Os, Hans van: construction
Porte, Andree de la: photographic production
Schouwenburg, Dirk: production
Schuurman, Otto: video production
Smook, Rutger: cartography, inspirator
Spek, Johannes van der: interviews, sound production
Tijen, Tjebbe van: concept, database, reseraarch
Tuijnman, Dick: maquette maker
Uytenhaak, Rudi: urban plans
Zouteriks, Cock: performance

organizations
NLD Amsterdam
NLD Amsterdam, : subsidiser
NLD Amsterdam, Wijkcentrum d'Oude Stadt : management

where/when
locations
(1986) NLD Amsterdam, Waterlooplein Grand Vista building
(1987) NLD Amsterdam, Oosterkerk
(1988-1992) NLD Amsterdam, Open Haven Museum


1984; Smook, Rudger; Binnensteden veranderen : atlas van het ruimtelijk veranderingsproces van Nederlandse binnensteden in de laatste anderhalve eeuw; (inner towns are changing) a cartographic study of the changing morphology of historic centres of Dutch towns by the engineer Rutger Smook inspired some of the map systems in this exhibtion.

1986; Bakker, Henk/Aerschot, Rob van; Het IJ geopend , de binnenstad gedicht; exhibtion catalogue with a description of 70 urban plans for the eastern part of the inner town of Amsterdam.
24

what
At the day of the official opening of the much disputed and contested ‘Stopera’ building in Amsterdam, another initiation ceremony takes place: the ‘radiophonic installation of the Stopera’. This ceremonial performance and concert focussed on the outside of the building, while the local authorities and their invitees - among whom the Dutch Queen - were concentrating on the inside with a new opera and ballet performance.

One hour before the offical opening the Radiophonic Installation started. Around the huge building, four high power sound systems had been installed in windows and on roofs of neighbouring houses. From these systems a life sound mix was emitted that was broadcasted from a house right opposte the Stopera building. The sound mix consisted of both pre-recorded elements and life sound input. A score for the event that lasted several hours had been made, allowing for some direct imporvisations. Sound recordings made during the construction of the Stoprea, especially the immense noise of several drop hammer machines that drove during monthes hundreds of founding poles in the soft Amsterdam subsoil, were combined with recordings of the tribal singing (cultures that do not need a huge building for their music). At the same time a noise demonstration took place around the Stopera building with the crowd waving metal plates. These sounds were taken life and mixed in. The riot police took also part in this radiophonic-concert, their coordinating radio broadcasts were picked up by a scanner and mixed in with the rest of the sound. A mobile telephone (a rarety at that time) was smuggled inside the opera to give some life feed. Radio Populare in Milano had a direct link through a telephone line with Amsterdam and re-casted the program, also adding live interventions to the Amsterdam broadcast.
Special kinetic effects were added to the scenery at the moment that the riot police started to encircle the house from which the broadcast was made: tens of toy bouncing balls were thrown - as a present - from the window admidst the policemen in their special riot outfit. This funny and joyful event releaxed the somewhat tense atmosphere and the house was not stormed after all.

Later in the evening slides were projected on the white marble front of the building, with one of the texts “is this real marble?” as in the Netherlands marble is an expensive building material and overt public display of richness is rare in the building history of the town. On the roof of a house that could be clearly seen from the foyer of the opera building a light journal was continuously displaying commentaries and critical poetry. The radiophonic installation ended with the audience leaving the Stopera building. A sound recording have been made of the event.

The next day most newspapers had negative headings classifying the Radiophonic Installation as “kabaal” (hullabaloo), clearly failing to understand the conceptual consistency and the communal creativity of this event.

why
For almost a century the need for two public buildings have been on the agenda of the city of Amsterdam: a town hall and an opera. In the seventeenth century a new town hall (stadhuis) was build bordering the Dam square in the center of the old town. For its time it was a huge and luxurious construction expressing the international power of Amsterdam as a seafaring and warring nations, a trading center and the base of the East and West Indian Companies. All that changed at the end of the eighteenth and beginning of the nineteenth century when the Netherlands became a part of the French empire. The brother of Napoleon, who was made king of the Netherlands, took the Amsterdam town hall as one of his palaces. After the French defeat and the restoration of European nations, the Netherlands became a kingdom and the new Dutch royals kept the expropriated Amsterdam town hall, as one of their palaces (though none of Dutch monarchs ever resides in Amsterdam, that was thought to be too republican and rebellious). The local city council had to find some less representative abode. Since that day the town had its ‘town hall question’ and over the decades as many plans were proposed as rejected. After the second World War and its deportation of the Jewish population, which left the former Jewish quarters of the town around the Waterlooplein in disarray, an international competition for a new town hall was launched with the Waterlooplein as the chosen location. In 1968 the winner of the competition - with over two hundred participators - was announced: the Austrian architect Wilhelm Holzbauer. His plan faced a lot of criticism: some called it a bunker; 'republicans' said there was no need for a new building when the royals would give back the original town hall; and for ten years there were also problems with finding the necessary finances.

The other building question on the Amsterdam municipal agenda was the project for an opera house. Amsterdam had no real opera tradition as a ‘burgher’ city, formally it is the national capital, but not the seat of government or royal court. There were some attempts by a rich corn merchant (and speculator) Julius Carl Bunge, who was an admirer of Wagner and headed the Dutch Wagner Association, to build an opera house in the beginning of last century, located next to the Amsterdam music theater 'het Concertgewbouw', but this projects fell through. In the fifties there was a new initiative of the municipality to build an Opera, but again the necessary finances failed and also the 19th century popular neighbourhood were this new building was situated was protesting against what they rightly saw a a threatening gentrification of their surroundings. Then, at the end of the seventies these two building questions were combined and the national government promised to give a substantial part of the needed capital to build what has been popular baptized the ‘Stopera’ (town hall - music theater combination in official language).
Within a few weeks a design for such a combination building was made by the Austrian architect Holzbauer together with a Dutch architect, Kees van Dam, who had "inherited" some rights from his father in law who had made the opera house design for the Amsterdam municipality in the fifties. This 'Stopera' building was even bigger than the previous town hall design and completely out of scale with the small size and detailed urban structure around it. Also it threatened to push away the traditional flea market. The theater part of the building was very traditional in design, what is called a 19th century ‘Guckkastenbühne’, hardly allowing experiments to overcoming the classic radical divide between audience and actors.

All kind of civic action committees started campaigning against this new plan, including several renown architects and urban designers. The debate about the new town hall and opera combine split the local intelligentsia in several factions: first of all the 'real politiker' who said "this is an unique chance to have these two buildings after almost a century of debates and lack of finances, when the national government will take over the main part of the budget we should do it"; then there were those who did not like the design of the town hall part ­ which was an enormous L-shape stretch of office facilities with an elevated marble cube as the seat of the local parliament, but out of fear of missing the opera building they chose not to criticize the 'combine' too much; there was a smaller group of people involved in either the arts or architecture who dismissed the proposed design on mainly esthetically grounds, its apparent lack of integration with the finer scale of the surrounding buildings and the lost of freely accessible public space right in the center of town; very few indeed were those who criticized the opera building itself for its outdated theatrical concept, the lack of opportunities to experiment with spatial forms of theater beyond 19th century state opera standards.

A formal planning procedure at three levels (municipal, provincial and national) gave some opportunities to voice all this discontent and several architects worked out a series of alternative proposal, which were publicly exhibited. All these arguments carried substantial weight, resulting in an advice of the Raad van State (Council of State) not to execute the plan in its actual state and suggestions to make amendments. Here the nice Dutch tradition of democratic decision making ended abruptly, as Dutch law allows annulment by 'the crown', in other words the queen (on advice of her ministers). and so she did, and preparations for actual building started soon after.

This was not yet the end of the resistance against the building. There were some small acts of sabotage during preparatory works on the Waterlooplein square and a committee was formed that held weekly playful meetings with cultural activities on the building grounds. When the whole area was fenced off and machinery for hammering in the hundreds of concrete pillars was brought in, a demonstration was called. It started at the main Dam square next to what was once the town hall and now the royal palace. When the demonstrators crossed the bridge next to the building grounds they no longer met any police force, for some odd reason these had withdrawn. Several big sound systems place in housed around the building terrain were broadcasting a combine of electronic music and opera singing and there was a small stage set up for speakers against the new building. One of the speakers was the renown Dutch composer Peter Schat, who after ward refused for ten years to have any of his works been performed in the Stopera building. The crowd took some initiative by leveling the fences and stormed the field where the building machines stood. Some of these machines were set on fire and still no police. After a few hours things calmed down, but the next day the municipal authorities announced harsh measures. They called in a platoon of riot policeman and announced that they would stay for as long it was needed (which was in the end half a year), a high steel fence was build all around and at night there were floodlights all over. In hindsight one can imagine some form of tactics on the side of the authorities in not having any police force available on or around the contested building grounds during the demonstration. They could disqualify the violent demonstrators in the eyes of the general public and take hard and unsympathetic counter measures. for what was not to become a military base or whatever, but the center of local democracy and culture.



Radiophonic Installation of the Stopera 1986
(combination of new town hall and opera building)

Tjebbe van Tijen (author)
Fred Gales (contributing author)
9 contributing persons
3 contributing organizations
3 locations

who
persons
Bijnen, Hein: mobile telephone
Bruinsma, Max: sound recording ram sounds
Gales, Fred: discjockey, sound research
Kaagman, Hugo: pictogram design
Kraan, Peter van der Pouw: sound content
Maioli, Walther: radio production
Os, Hans van: sound production
Reinout, : radio broadcasting
Tijen, Tjebbe van: composition, voice

organizations
ITA Milano, Radio Populare: broadcaster
NLD Amsterdam, Radio Factum : broadcaster
NLD Amsterdam, Zomerstraat Theater/Theaterstraat : supporter

where/when
locations
(1986) ITA Milano, Local FM radio emission
(1986) NLD Amsterdam, Local FM radio emission
(1986) NLD Amsterdam, Waterlooplein around Town Hall/Opera building (Stopera)


1980; Beck, Wolfgang Alfred/Blom, Marijke ; Een cultuurpaleis in een arbeiderswijk ? : analyse van een belangenstrijd; (a culture place in a workers neighbourhood : analysis of an interest struggle) Study about the protests against a new opera in De Pijp quarter in Amsterdam in the sixties and seventies of last century.

1982; Amende, Vera; Amsterdams opera [Amsterdamse stadhuizen, paleizen, opera's en luchtkastelen; dl. 3]; historical overview of different plans for town halls and operas in Amsterdam in the form of a board game.

1986; Zender : radiomaandblad; issue of monthly newspaper of free/pirate radio stations in Amsterdam that appeared between 1985-1987; it has the score of the 'Radiophonic installation'; Eef vermeij was one of the editors.

1986; Openingsprogramma Het Muziekthater : De Nederlandse Opera, Ithaka; Het Nationale Ballet, Zoals Orpheus; the official program book of the opening of what the officials call call "het Muziektheater"; the mirky cover design makes the title hardly readable; the content has also a short building history with minimal reference to all the protests.
25

what
This project developed over a long period of time and has had different forms depending on the state of the technology of each period. At first it were merely books in vitrines with enlarged photocopies of quotations that would describe in some way the influence of the outer environment on the mind and the either way around the projection of a state of mind on the outer environment, both as expressed in literature. It was a method to get some understanding of how different generations experienced there living environment over time, something beyond what can be communicated directly by talking with someone... going several generations back in time.

In 1986 a version was proposed that would make use of computer graphics and some form of interactivity by using video-players that could be steered and switched to offer (with some delay) prerecorded fragments of spoken texts combined with computer generated imagery.

In the manuscript edition shown in the left hand column some flow charts are included that show the technical setup of that time.

why
The expression "literary psychogeography" was coined by me in 1979 in the title of an essay "An attempt at a literary psychogeography of the Amsterdam's Jewish area", published as an epilogue to Harry Hoogstraten's poem "Kiekjes". Hoogstraten's poem was constructed in William Burroughs' "cut up" technique with passages from a collection of poems of the same name by the Jewish rabbi Meijer de Hond published in 1926, interwoven with free associations by the poet. In my essay I compared Meijer de Hond's description of the Jewish area with descriptions by other authors, from Multatuli till nostalgic post World War II novelists like Meijer Sluizer. I wondered whether certain descriptions are the fruit of literary talents or whether rather, in some cases, the radiance of surroundings has been such that authors could not have described them otherwise. This applies in particular to the similarities in the descriptions of the area's flee market: in spite of fifty years' distance, the descriptions by Multatuli (in "Ideeën", "Woutertje Pieterse"; 1876) and Meijer de Hond ("Kiekjes"; 1926) are, in some cases, almost interchangeable. The question whether certain descriptions of cities in literature have influenced their appearance, as wrote Piet Bakker in 1959 in his book "Wel en wee rond het Waterlooplein" (Joy and sorrow around the Waterlooplein): "Those who have known the deceased in his full vitality and bustle, have all the time been waiting for the day when those macabre memories of what once was will have gone", or Meijer Sluizer around that same time: "Not only in the Weesperstraat (a street in the former Jewish area) grass should grow, wild grass should cover the ruins of our memories as well ..".

The final paragraphs of the essay describe literary psychogeography as a means to exercise a positive influence on one's own physical surroundings: "The city as spatial history; walking in the city as one of the most popular though for the many unconscious ways of historical research; city renovation, a process more of destruction than of  renovation, as an organized amnesia process".

History as "something which enables people to shape their future by explaining their past" shows a new possibility to use the literature featuring Amsterdam's Jewish area: "a guideline for the future layout of the area". A layout "able to call images and emotions worth remembering". Hoogstraten's poem using passages from Meijer de Hond's descriptions of former experiences and creating ever new language images by association offers "a taste of what variety and unexpected impressions are possible; possible, one would wish, () not only in fleeting language".

Literary Psychogeography of Amsterdam 1986-1991
Tjebbe van Tijen (author)
Jeffrey Shaw (contributing author)
3 contributing persons
3 contributing organizations
2 locations

who
persons
Jungbaum, Charly: technical advice
Shaw, Jeffrey: concept
Tijen, Tjebbe van: concept

organizations
NLD Amsterdam, Dadadata : supporter
NLD Amsterdam, Mozes en Aaron Kerk: accommodator
NLD Amsterdam, Studio Stampij : facilitator

where/when
locations
(1986) NLD Amsterdam, Mozes en Aaron Kerk
(1986) NLD Amsterdam, Waterlooplein Grand Vista building


1957; Debord, Guy; Guide psychogeographique de Paris; Bauhaus Imaginiste; Map of central part of Paris showing the psycho-geographic principle of the 'derive' (drifting).

1979; Hoogstraten, Harry/Tijen, Tjebbe van; Kiekjes 1926-1978; Associative 'cut-up' technique poem by Harry Hoogstraten on the Jodenbreestraat in Amsterdams; with an essay on 'literary psychogeography' of the Jewish Quarter by Tjebbe van Tijen.

1986-1987; Tijen, Tjebbe van/Shaw, Jeffrey; Literaire psychogeografie van Amsterdam; Second concept for interactive installation.

1991; Shaw, Jeffrey/Tijen, Tjebbe van; Literary psychogeography : a project in development; text exists in Dutch, English and French version; originally written for a possible psycho-geographic project of Marseille.
26

Hallofonische installatie Anthoniesbreestraat 1988
(intercom installation of reconstructed street)
Tjebbe van Tijen (author)
Fred Gales (contributing author)
8 contributing persons
3 contributing organizations
1 locations

who
persons
Adalbert, Curt: computer graphics
Boersma, Pieter: photography
Eissens, Josien: production
Gales, Fred: sound design, sound production
Griffioen, Marijke: computer graphics
Kleynen, Theo: construction big projection screen
Murchland, Tony: slide projection
Tijen, Tjebbe van: concept, computer graphics, research

organizations
NLD Amsterdam, Bewonersraad Nieuwmarkt : organizer
NLD Amsterdam, Projectgroep Nieuwmarkt: subsidiser
NLD Amsterdam, Studio Stampij : facilitator

where/when
locations
(1988) NLD Amsterdam, Sint Anthoniesbreestraat (projection screen on facade)


1988; Tijen, Tjebbe van; Een straat die je leest als een boek; (a street that reads as a book) Special issue of Amsterdam Nieuwmarkt neighbourhood paper 'Opnieuw' with 'literary psycho-geographic' quotations used in the Hallofonische installatie.
27

what
An exhibition in the V2 center, at that time housed in an old factory in ‘s Hertogenbosch in the South of the Netherlands. This part of the exhibition was based on the collection of the Documentation center of Modern Social Movements of the University Library Amsterdam. An overview of radical forms of publishing as it grew from the international cultural underground movement was shown. Publications in vitrines and poster like objects both hung from the ceiling on steel cables.

There were also some references to the Europe Against The Current manifestation that was planned next year September in this exhibition.

The catalogue had as an appendix a selection from the materials on show in microfiche format.


Extreme Information Streams 1987
Alex Adriaanse (author)
Tjebbe van Tijen (contributing author)
3 contributing persons
2 contributing organizations
1 locations

who
persons
Adriaanse, Alex: concept, curator
Tijen, Tjebbe van: concept, production
Vermeij, Eef: production

organizations
NLD Amsterdam, Universiteitsbibliotheek Amsterdam : content provider, supporter
NLD Den Bosch, V2 : organizer

where/when
locations
(1987) NLD Den Bosch, V2


1987; Manifestatie over extreme informatie stromen; catalogue of exhibition which includes a microfiche with documents of the exhibition part curated by Tjebbe van Tijen.
28

how


Europe Against the Current: Bill Stickers Will Be Prosecuted 1989-1990
collective work
10 contributing persons
6 contributing organizations
3 locations

who
persons
Adalbert, Curt: photography
Gastkemper, Erik: equipment, support
Graaf, Midas van der: software development
Moreel, Bas: translation
Murchland, Tony: slide projection
Oudshoorn, Suzan: photographic collage
Tijen, Tjebbe van: concept, production, research
Vermeij, Eef: database, translation
Wahedi, Mazdak: production
Zoest, Pepijn van: projection screens

organizations
NLD Amsterdam, European Cultural Foundation: subsidiser
NLD Amsterdam, Gallerie W139 : accommodator
NLD Amsterdam, ID-Archiv im IISG: content provider
NLD Amsterdam, Stichting Europa Tegen de Stroom : organizer
NLD Amsterdam, Universiteitsbibliotheek Amsterdam : content provider
NLD Amsterdam, X min Y Foundation: subsidiser

where/when
locations
(1989) NLD Amsterdam, Gallerie W139
(1990) DEU Dortmund, Bibliotheka: Westphalen Halle
(1990) DEU Hamburg, Hochschule für Bildende Künste

 
29

what
An exhibition on alternative and radical information carriers from the last 25 years from Europe, both West and East. Showing the differences in design and expressive methods because of differences in available technology and financial resources. Samizdat publications from Eastern Europe versus cultural underground publications in the West. Also some examples of printing techniques like the primitive silkscreen frames used in Hungary. A good example were some posters from the Soviet Union, independently published, so they were hand painted, as no printing facilities were at that time available to independent operating persons or groups. Another example were Czech samizdat periodicals made by hammering a text on a typewriter with several layers of carbon paper. Mostly photocopied Punk fanzines from the West showed how means of production and independence are related. Different information carriers were on show: posters, printed T-shirts, audio cassettes, vinyl records, hand made collage books, photocopied and duplicated materials, postcards, and so on.

These materials were displayed in specially designed vitrines hanging on steel cables from the ceiling of the gallery (in other places a scaffolding construction was set up for hanging). Each panel had a background of wooden board with many regular holes. In these holes special spiral steel springs could be put at any spot to fasten the material without a need for pins, tape or glue.

At a second stage some vitrines did have simple sound system with an endless looping tape that started to play when a visitor approached the vitrine.

The materials shown came from the collection of the Department for the Documentation of Modern Social Movements of the University Library Amsterdam and also several on loan from people participating in the Europe Against the Current manifestation.

why
From 1987 onward contacts were made with publisher and performers from all over Europe. This is the manifesto that has been send around in many different languages:

MANIFESTO
In Europe, the birthplace of the nation states
with their 'national' cultures
exchanged in the international markets
like commodities
another exchange has been going on for many years
of another type of culture

that exceeds the limitations of nationhood
takes no account of the power blocks
ignores the accepted norms

The urge to express oneself
to create one's own forms
to offer one's own interpretations
to appropriate all the means of expression
gives birth to products like

posters, postcards,
books, pamphlets, periodicals,
slides, photos, films,
audio-cassettes, records, videotapes,
assemblages, installations, computer systems

The circulation of these products is not limited
to the circles of their makers
but extends far beyond:
a lively international exchange
notwithstanding censoring
notwithstanding border checks
notwithstanding financial limitations

The manifestation
EUROPE AGAINST THE CURRENT
seeks to give an extra stimulus
to this free and independent exchange of information
- aims to establish new cross connections
between groups and currents
from the Urals to Iceland
from the North Cape to Gibraltar
- offers the opportunity
to make new contacts
with a new audience

The manifestation
- ignores usual barriers between disciplines:
visual arts-literature-music-theatre-film-....
seeks to stimulate multidisciplinary approaches
- does not confine itself to a single area:
politics-minorities-environment-emancipation-....
but, by presenting these areas and others,
wants to show what connects them
- does not seek only to bring together
people who share the same opinions
but wants to show the wide variety of opinions

Independent publishers,
alternative culture makers
radical producers
come for three days
have your creativities flow together:

EUROPE AGAINST THE CURRENT


Europe Against the Current: Radical Information Carriers 1989-1990
collective work
16 contributing persons
8 contributing organizations
3 locations

who
persons
Berg, Marjet van de: financial management
Diedrich, Axel: editorial production
Graaf, Midas van der: software development
Hoogveld, Frank: object design and construction
Knoppers, Rijkert: editorial production
Kraan, Peter van der Pouw: software development
Moreel, Bas: translation
Morel, Huib: lending his house to be used as an office
Rasias, Vlasias: content advice Greece
Schindowski, Waldemar: editorial production
Schmidt, Lothar: software development
Tijen, Tjebbe van: concept, production, research
Trofimenkov, Mikhail: content advice Soviet Union
Tummers, Nic: support
Vermeij, Eef: editorial production
Vojtechovsky, Milos: editorial production

organizations
NLD Amsterdam, Dadadata : icons software
NLD Amsterdam, European Cultural Foundation: subsidiser
NLD Amsterdam, Gallerie W139 : accommodator
NLD Amsterdam, ID-Archiv im IISG: content provider
NLD Amsterdam, Stichting Europa Tegen de Stroom : organizer
NLD Amsterdam, Universiteitsbibliotheek Amsterdam : content provider
NLD Amsterdam, X min Y Foundation: subsidiser
NLD Amsterdam, Zomerstraat Theater/Theaterstraat : transport

where/when
locations
(1989) NLD Amsterdam, Gallerie W139
(1990) DEU Dortmund, Bibliotheka: Westphalen Halle
(1990) DEU Hamburg, Hochschule für Bildende Künste


1985; Sontag, Susan (1933-2004); A magyar szamizdat 5 éve 1981-1985 : 5 years of Hungarian samizdat; Bibliography and manifesto of independent (samizdat) publishing in Hungary in period 1981-1985 for Cultural Forum in Budapest, a meeting that inspired the 'Europe Against the Current' manifestation in 1989 with introductory text by Susan Sontag .

1988; Europe against the current - Amsterdam - 1989; poster and manifesto send out in 1988/1989.

1989; Tijen, Tjebbe van (editor); Europe against the current : catalogue on alternative , independent and radical information carriers; One thousand addresses from individuals and groups from 25 European countries collected in the period 1985-189, all active in alternative and radical media.

1990; Tijen, Tjebbe van; Going against the grain, Europe against the current; article in Dutch journal de Gids, May 1990, reflecting on cultural differences at both sides of 'the iron curtain' that had just been pulled away.
30

what
The commemoration of the bicentenary of the French revolution of 1789 in 1989 led to this installation in which two hundred years of ‘revolutionary moments’ from all over the world are to be represented by two hundred replicas of monuments and sculptures that directly or indirectly represent a revolution. These monument replicas - all made to the same size (slightly bigger than an average human) - will be brought together in one place where visitors can walk around them and trigger revolutionary songs by touching a statue. In the middle of the terrain where the monument replicas are placed is a circular transparent enclosure with a at the entrances dispenser machines where one can buy mini replicas of the revolution monuments. Inside the enclosure there are several interactive (video-disc) installations, each with several screens and a sensor on which a chosen mini-replica - that represents a specific revolutionary moment - can be placed. By way of a touch screen the visitor can, starting from the chosen revolution, travel in time space and ideology. Short ‘tableau’ like depictions and textual descriptions are displayed and also one can hear a revolutionary song belong to a chosen moment, portraits and biographies of related personalities are displayed as well. One can see which revolutions happened in the same period, or in the same geographical area. An icon based classification system shows the ideological components of each revolutionary moment through three elements: actors, actions and motifs. Revolutions with the same classification can be chosen or one can decide to follow only certain specific historical moments, like peasants as actors, or military as actors.

This project proposal was submitted to an official French competition for the ‘commemoration du bicentenaire de la révolution Française’. The ‘Imaginary Museum of Revolution’ project was chosen as one of ten projects that should be realized. Sadly this failed because some officials on the commission did not appreciate the fact that in this project ‘La Grande Révolution Française’ was shown as just one of many revolutionary moments in the world. Also the costs of a full realization of the project would have been very high. Because the project almost materialized, many parts have been actually realized, like the database with over 2000 revolutionary moments, a research on possible sculptures and how to make the replicas. The full project proposal has been exhibited in Paris and a first public tryout of some p[principles has been shown in The Hague. The Brucknerhaus in Linz, Austria was the first serious financier of the project, making it possible to produce a first pilot version. Several compromises had to be made to make this pilot, so instead of monument replicas there were panoramic photographic scrolls and postcards with barcodes were used in the dispenser instead of mini-replicas. The historical research has later been recycled as a book on two centuries of revolutions, and the tableau-images of revolutionary moments were reused in a video-sculpture named ‘Revolution’.

why
Revolutions can be grouped in extremely diverse ways. Each individual‘s conception of society and its history defines a way of grouping these events. It may involve slight distinctions between closer related concepts such as insurrection, riot, rebellion and revolt or diametrically opposed interpretations of the same event such as revolution and counter-revolution. The same forms can acquire completely different meanings in other places and at other times: army mutinies, banditry or guerillas, civil rights movements, boycots or civil disobedience.

Independence, national unity or secession can all be viewed as being revolutionary. The concept of constitutional revolution indicates the regulated construction of a new order whereas other revolutionary movements want to create their new society out of the actual process of destruction. Non-European history is even more confusing. For instance, when should the fight against Europeancolonialism be called revolutionary? And shouldn’t the countless slave revolts and wars between the marrons and their former masters now be considered as being revolutions rather than allowing j‘ust one single case like Haiti? The closer an event is in time and space, the more critical one is of the application of the word ‘revolution‘. Understandably many reject the use of this word in terms of fascist movements as led by Mussolini and Hitler but these movements do conform to definitions of ‘revolution‘ as being ‘any large-scale process of change‘ or ‘the overthrow of a society‘s dominant value system‘. Not everyone feels that the concept of revolution need be limited to that of a complete revolution within a society, rather it can also be applied to short-lived and less all-embracing historical events.

In our opinion, commemorating the French Revolution implies that this arena of debate, of differing opinions and conflicting ideas must once again be broached. By showing different kinds of revolutions world-wide, from different areas and including their various interpretations, the authors of this project wish to express the multifaceted aspects of the concept ‘revolution‘.

how


Imaginary Museum of Revolution 1988-1989
Jeffrey Shaw (author)
Tjebbe van Tijen (author)
36 contributing persons
9 contributing organizations
3 locations

who
persons
Adalbert, Curt: computer graphics
Aubert, Jean: initiator
Bakker, Gijs: object design
Berck, Bas: computer graphics
Bergeyk, Gilius van: musical advice
Boersma, Pieter: photography
Derks, Hans: historical research
Eissens, Josien: production
Griffioen, Marijke: computer graphics, production
Hattinger, Gotfried: commissionar, energizer
Hoogveld, Frank: object design and construction
Hudrisier, Henri: technical advice
Jong, Rudolf de: historical advice
Jungman, Jean Paul: inspirator
Jungmann, Jean-Paul: initiator
Kasander, Kees: curator
Kleynen, Theo: construction big projection screen
Kloosterman, Jaap: support
Knegtman, Marise: illustrator
Kraan, Peter van der Pouw: database design
Lebouille, Max: data archiving
Mannetje, Hans 't: sculptoral advice
May, Gideon: software development
Molenkamp, Rob: picture research, support
Oosterwijk, Willem van: object design
Ros, Guus: graphic design
Shaw, Jeffrey: concept, production
Sonepouse, Pim: equipment, technical advice, support
Swaanswijk, Henny: adminstration
Taken, Claudia: historical research
Tijen, Tjebbe van: concept, production
Tol, Bas van: pictogram design
Tonka, Hubert: graphic design,initiator
Velthoven, Willem: magazine publisher
Vermeij, Eef: carboard replicas statues
Wahedi, Mazdak: picture research

organizations
AUT Linz, Brucknerhaus : commissionar
NLD Amsterdam, BRS Premsela Vonk : sponsor
NLD Amsterdam, Dadadata : software assistance
NLD Amsterdam, International Institute of Social History : content provider
NLD Amsterdam, Museum Fodor: accommodator
NLD Amsterdam, Studio Stampij : facilitator
NLD Den Haag, Haagse Filmstichting : commissionar
NLD Haarlem, Spaarnestad Archief : content provider
NLD Hattum, De Waal Scanning B.V. : sponsor

where/when
locations
(1988) FRA Paris, Inventer Quatre-Vingt-Neuf: La Villette La Grande Halle
(1988) NLD Den Haag, Het Plein (projections on the former building of the Raad van Staten)
(1989) AUT Linz, Brucknerhaus


1947; Malraux, André; Le musée imaginaire; In the series 'Psychologie de l'art', published by Skira.

1988; Kasander, Kees; Image and Sound festival: Film and new media; first presentation of IMR project; Den Haag.

1988; Shaw, Jeffrey/Tijen, Tjebbe van; Un Musée Imaginaire de la Révolution; illustrated project description.

1988; Jungmann, Jean-Paul/Tonka, Hubert; Inventer Quatre-Vingt-Neuf; catalogue of competition.

1989; Derks, Hans G.M; Kroniek van 3 eeuwen revoluties; a book inspired by the Imaginary Museum of Revolution project.

1990; Sei, Keiko; Von der Bürokratie zur Telekratie : Rumänien im Fernsehen(1989) : Ein Symposion aus Budapest; The IMR project was presented during this symposium.
31

Videodisc Sculpture 'Revolution' 1990
Jeffrey Shaw (author)
Tjebbe van Tijen (contributing author)
5 contributing persons
2 contributing organizations
11 locations

who
persons
Bossinade, Bas: hard/software integration
May, Gideon: software development
Nelisse, Huib: object design and construction
Shaw, Jeffrey: concept, production
Tijen, Tjebbe van: computer graphics, research

organizations
NLD Amsterdam, Stichting Montevideo: organizer
NLD Zeist, Nederlandse Kunst Stichting: commissionar

where/when
locations
(1990) NLD Amsterdam, Kunst RAI : RAI
(1991) CHE Locarno, Video Art Festival:
(1991) SVK Bratislava, Kulturni Dom
(1992) ESP Barcelona, Palao de la Virreina
(1992) PRT Oporto, Edificio de Alfandega do Porto
(1993) DEU Hamburg, Deichtorhallen
(1993) ESP Sevilla, World Expo :
(1994) JPN Gunma, Hara Arc Museum
(1994) NLD Enschede, De Vrijhof Universiteit Twente
(1995) KOR Seoul, Kwangju Biennale :
(1995) TAI Taipei, Fine Arts Museum


1990; Possel, Jans; Imago , fin de siècle in Dutch contemporary art; Catalogue of internationaly travelling exhibition in which the 'Revolution' installation was shown.
32

Micro-Chrono Machine 1994
Tjebbe van Tijen (author)
Rolf Pixley (contributing author)
9 contributing persons
2 contributing organizations
1 locations

who
persons
Breenen, Jan van: technical advice microfilm
Gales, Fred: sound production
Gastkemper, Erik: equipment, technical advice, support
Jungbaum, Charly: hard/software integration, technical advice
Os, Hans van: construction
Pixley, Rolf: hard/software integration, software development
Schuurman, Otto: construction
Spitteler, Henk: support
Tijen, Tjebbe van: concept, production

organizations
NLD Amsterdam, Gallerie Het Getal 0 : accommodator
NLD Lisse, Microformat Systems: facilitator microfilming, supporter

where/when
locations
(1994) NLD Amsterdam, Gallerie Het Getal 0


1994; Tijen, Tjebbe van; Projects Projected; poster for exhibtion in gallery Het Getal 0, Amsterdam where micro-chrono machine was shown.
33

What
Looking & Pointing, an interactive computer installation starting with the original edition of the Orbis Sensualium Pictus, showing how the depiction and description of the world for children and in educational books changed, from the sixteenth century till now. Books from the end of the sixteenth and beginning of the seventeenth century that were a source of inspiration for Comenius are combined with books inspired by the ‘Orbis Pictus’ published in the following four centuries. A total of twenty books, all original editions, coming from five different European libraries can be looked at and compared in detail in digital form. The searching system is entirely based on images and spoken word and its function is to facilitate the comparison of the different books, its plates and details. This part of the installation has two big monitors, one placed horizontal (the touch screen), the other vertical (navigation screen).

Touch screen: Choices can be made by pointing and touching of parts of the pictures on the bottom screen (touch screen). The installation speaks three languages that can be chosen by touching the colored circles at the bottom of the screen: Latin (blue), Dutch (green), English (red).

Navigation: At the left and right of this touch screen there are metal plates that react to a short and light touch of the hand, by touching these switches you can move back and forward through time. In the same way the switches at the top and bottom of the screen let you go through different levels of information: bookshelf, book, chapters, subchapters, tableaus and details. Little lights in the switches indicate which navigation options are available. You can use these switches only when they are lighted.
 
Navigation screen: On the top navigation screen you can always see the available books in chronological order by year of publishing. On this screen you can see where you are: in which century, book, chapter, subchapter, page, tableau or detail.

Graphic representation: The book as a visual object forms the basis of the navigation system. The back covers of the books can be perused on real scale (some books go off screen because of their size). The content of the books is represented chapter wise in segmented diagram circles (we called them Fludd circles after the 17th century English physician who developed this system for his books on the macro and micro cosmos). Once a chapter is chosen, subchapters appear also in circles with pictograms representing each singular section. The singular section mostly consist of tableau like representations of the human world. Details from these tableaus can be chosen as well, which are enlarged so one can study the depiction in great detail.

Spoken languages: at each level of navigation speech is triggered by choices made on the touch screen. These can be the title of the book, a chapter, a tableau or a detail of an tableau. Details are either singular words, or words set in a short definition like sentence. As said three languages can be accessed. There have been two editions of the installation, the one shown in the Netherlands spoke Dutch instead of German, though of the Orbis Pictus itself no Dutch version existed. For this reason a reconstruction of seventeenth century Dutch has been made, facilitated by the fact that Comenius during his long stay in the Netherlands had published similar teaching books with Dutch words and sentences. The Latin language was spoken by a specialist in Neo-Latin.


Why
The installation is based on the book Orbis Sensualium Pictus (the world explained in pictures) by Comenius. The first version was published in 1658 in Nürnberg in a German/Latin edition. Comenius is the Latin name of Jan Amos Komensky, born in Nivnice near Uhersky Brod in Moravia 1592, deceased Amsterdam 1670 and buried in Naarden. The Orbis Sensualium Pictus is a playful and visual textbook to learn Latin and other languages. It summarizes the whole world in hundred and fifty pictures (tableaus) with titles (nomenclature) and numbers that point to words that are set in short sentences. Almost two thousand words and notions are explained for children in this compact little book. In the past three centuries more than two hundred editions in twenty six languages, that used the Orbis Sensualium Pictus as a model, have been published. Things, phenomena and notions are shown in the seemingly natural context of landscapes, still lifes, schemes or allegoric images. Most of the tableaus represent concrete and tangible things. The seventeenth century tableaus look like modern computer screens with 'hot spots' that can be clicked with a mouse or be touched to set an event in motion. The exhibition Orbis Pictus Revised joins this seventeenth century 'multi media' book with today's modern technology.

The project has in fact been started by Milos Vojtechovsky who was living at that time in Amsterdam where he had a small galery ‘Oko’ (eye). In the early nineties of last century he made a whole series of associative assemblages of all kind of left overs and scrap materials, which were all inspired by one of the 150 tableaus in the litlle book of Comenius. A first exhibition of these assemblages was documented by Milos in a handmade book, which showed the tableaus and texts that inspired the assemblages. At the end of this book Milos has one quotation that summarizes his intend:

“ln every human being there is a strong methaphysical desire to create a reality structured through images in which objects become meaningful through vision and which does not, as Max Planck believed, exist because it is measureable.Most of all, the question of imagination and ideas as an instrument of thinking and analyzing has occupied artists and philosophers. Only in more recent history this process of thinking has been undervalued because of the predominance of quantitative and materialistic criteria. It is obvious, however,that what we generally call thinking is nothing else than the application of imagination ana ideas to a given set of facts and not just an abstract process but a visual and sensuous event. The way we experience the world around us depends on how we perceive it. Without a comprehensive vision the reality will appear as a mass of unrelated phenomena and meaningless facts, in other words, totaly chaotic. In such a world it would be like living in a vacuum: everything would be of equal importance; nothing could attract our attention; and there would be no possibility for the utilization of the mind.”

O.M.Ungers, Man trans Forms

Also there are a few lines on other sources of inspiration:

“This exhibition draws inspiration from ORBIS SENSUALIUM PICTUS by Comenius, 658 Nürenberg, Waterloo fleamarket in Amsterdam, National Museum in Prague, Wunderkamer collection of Strahov Monastery in Prague,Arcimboldo, Buckminster Fuller and other illustrious personalities.”

Milos had a leaflet in which he invited other people with interest in his reserach to collaborate. I must have been the only one who reacted, as I was struck with the modernity of this 17th century booklet. To me it was like a touch screen system avant la lettre.

Orbis Pictus Revised: Looking and Pointing 1995-1996
Tjebbe van Tijen (author)
Milos Vojtechovsky (author)
Rolf Pixley (contributing author)
23 contributing persons
15 contributing organizations
3 locations

who
persons
Boersma, Pieter: photography
Bossinade, Bas: hard/software integration
Citroen, Charlie: assemblages assistance
Dukes, Jeannet: voice German
Erkel, Frans van: sound editing
Friedman, Lin: voice English
Gales, Fred: sound design, sound production
Griffioen, Marijke: computer graphics, interaction design
Haensel, Bart: computer graphics, interaction design
Heesakkers, Chris: scientific advice Neo-Latin, voice Neo Latin
Hey, Jozef: light design
Hoogveld, Frank: object design and construction
Lakerveld, Carry van: commissionar
Nevejan, Caroline: commissionar, inspirator
Odette, Birgitte: voice Dutch
Oklobdzija, Mira: support
Pixley, Rolf: interaction design, software development
Raijmakers, Bas: production
Schwarz, Hans-Peter: commissionar
Serexhe, Bernhard: production
Shaw, Jeffrey: advice interaction design
Tijen, Tjebbe van: concept, production
Vojtechovsky, Milos: assemblages, concept, production

organizations
CZE Prague, Knihovna Národního Muzea: content provider
CZE Prague, Národní Knihovna: content provider
CZE Prague, National Gallery (Valdstejnská Jízdarná) : accommodator
CZE Prague, Soros Center for Contemporary Art : organizer
DEU Karlsruhe, Medien Museum Zentrum für Kunst und Medientechnologie : commissionar
DEU Nürnberg, Stadbibliothek Nürnberg: content provider
DEU Wolfenbütel, Herzog August Bibliothek : content provider
NLD Amsterdam, Amsterdams Historisch Museum : commissionar
NLD Amsterdam, Bibliotheca Philosophica Hermetica : content provider
NLD Amsterdam, Imaginary Museum Projects: production
NLD Amsterdam, Maatschappij voor Oude en Nieuwe Media : organizer
NLD Amsterdam, Universiteitsbibliotheek Amsterdam : content provider
NLD Den Haag, Ministerie Welzijn Volksgezondheid en Cultuur : subsidiser
NLD Lisse, Microformat Systems: facilitator microfilming
NLD Odijk, Kodak Nederland: photo-cd from slides

where/when
locations
(1995) CZE Prague, National Gallery Prague (valdstejnská jízdarná)
(1995) DEU Karlsruhe, Multimediale: Zentrum fur Kunst und Medientechnologie (ZKM)
(1996) NLD Amsterdam, Maatschappij voor Oude en Nieuwe Media: Waaggebouw; Theatrum Anatomicum


1658; Comenius, Johannes Amos (1592-1670); Orbis sensualium pictus : hoc est, omnium fundamentalium in Mundo Rerum & in Vita Actionum, Pictura & Nomenclatura; first Nürnberg edition.

1967; Pilz, Kurt; Johann Amos Comenius : die Ausgaben des Orbis Sensualium Pictus : eine Bibliographie; Lists most of the over two hundred editions.

1983; Alpers, Svetlana (1936-); The art of describing : Dutch art in the seventeenth century; Important reading for understanding the tableau system of Comenius.

1991; Vojtechovsky, Milos; Orbis Sensualium Pictus Revised; manuscript edition which shows the associative assemblages based on the tableaus of Comenius his book; Oko production.

1995; Hlavacek, Ludvik/Smolokova, Marta ; Orbis Fictus : nová média v soucasném umení; catalogue of new media exhibition in Prague where Orbis Pictus revised was shown.

1995-1996; Orbis Pictus Revised : dossier of newspaper clippings
34

what
Touching & Feeling: An interactive computer installation with objects that can be placed at three different sensors and thus will give you definitions for children of beings, things and phenomena from the seventeenth century compared with twentieth century definitions. There are three languages also here indicated by small colored circles on the table surface: Latin (blue), Dutch (green), English (red). In the spirit of Comenius, once a definition starts, the speaking can not be interrupted. A next choice will only be given after the preceding definition has finished speaking. All the pictures that are simultaneously shown are from the 1658 edition of the Orbis Sensualium Pictus as well as the 17th century definitions. The twentieth century definitions come from present children dictionaries. When a choice has been made with an object each definition is preceded with a sound belonging to the chosen object (except in cases where the represented object has no known sound like is the case with the sun).

There are fifteen objects on the table: eye, hand, tongue, ear, nose, breast, sun, dragon, horse, elephant, crocodile, camel, tree, whale, and turtle. Sometimes the difference between a seventeenth century and a twentieth century definition can be striking, like the definition of the hand:

17th century: Comenius, Orbis Pictus
“The hand, by touching, differneth the quantity and quality of things: the hot and cold, the moist and dry, the hard and soft, the smooth and rough, the heavy and light.”

20th century: Webster’s Children dictionary
“The part of the arm below the wrist, consisting of the palm, four fingers, and a thumb, used for grasping and holding.”

why
Comenius has written a detailed manual on the the practice of education he favored, the “Didactica Magna” (the great didactic). Several of his principles have been used in the Orbis Pictus revised installation. One of them being his emphasis on the use of all senses, including the tactile. The following quotations inspired the ‘Touching & Feeling” interface:

ALL THINGS CAN BE PLACE BEFORE THE SENSES
“... since the senses are the most trusty servants of the memory, this method of sensuous perception, if universally applied, will lead to the permanent retention of knowledge that has once been acquired. For instance, if I have once tasted sugar, seen a camel, heard a nightingale sing, or been in Rome, and have on each occasion attentively impressed the fact on my memory, the incidents will remain fresh and permanent. We find, accordingly, that children can easily memorise Scriptural and secular stories from pictures. Indeed, he who has once seen a rhinoceros (even in a picture) or been present at a certain occurrence, can picture the animal to himself and retain the event in his memory with greater ease than if they had been described to him six hundred times. Hence the saying of Plautus: "An eye-witness is worth more than ten ear-witnesses." Horace also says: "What is entrusted to the fickle ears makes less impression in the mind than things which are actually presented to the eyes and which the spectator stores up for himself."
(...)
If the objects themselves cannot be procured, representations of them may be used. Copies or models may be constructed for teaching purposes, and the same principle may be adopted by botanists, geometricians, zoologists, and geographers, who should illustrate their descriptions by engravings of the objects described. The same thing should be done in books on physics and elsewhere.
(...)
If any be uncertain if all things can be placed before the senses in this way, even things spiritual and things absent (things in heaven, or in hell, or beyond the sea), let him remember that all things have been harmoniously arranged by God in such a manner that the higher in the scale of existence can be represented by the lower, the absent by the present, and the invisible by the visible.

[p96-98, 1967 English translation of the Latin edition of 1657]

Such ideas on sensorial teaching have faded away and come backover the centuries, with the sensorial learning tools of Maria Montessori as an early twentieth century example.

Orbis Pictuse Revised:Touching and Feeling 1995-1996
Tjebbe van Tijen (author)
Milos Vojtechovsky (author)
Rolf Pixley (contributing author)
25 contributing persons
7 contributing organizations
3 locations

who
persons
Berck, Bas: computer graphics
Berkel, Edith van: computer graphics
Bosch, Robert: sound recording
Bossinade, Bas: hard/software integration
Dukes, Jeannet: voice German
Erkel, Frans van: sound editing
Friedman, Lin: voice English
Gales, Fred: sound production
Griffioen, Marijke: computer graphics
Haensel, Bart: computer graphics
Hamsch, Katja: interface hardware research
Heesakkers, Chris: scientific advice Neo-Latin, voice Neo Latin
Herzog, Ralf: interface hardware research
Hoogveld, Frank: object design and construction
Lakerveld, Carry van: commissionar
Nevejan, Caroline: commissionar, inspirator
Odette, Birgitte: voice Dutch
Oklobdzija, Mira: support
Pixley, Rolf: interaction design, software development
Schwarz, Hans-Peter: commissionar
Serexhe, Bernhard: production
Shaw, Jeffrey: advice interaction design
Tijen, Tjebbe van: concept, production
Vojtechovsky, Milos: concept, production
Zouteriks, Cock: special objects

organizations
CZE Prague, National Gallery (Valdstejnská Jízdarná) : accommodator
CZE Prague, Soros Center for Contemporary Art : organizer
DEU Karlsruhe, Fachhochschule Karlsruhe : technical research
DEU Karlsruhe, Medien Museum Zentrum für Kunst und Medientechnologie : commissionar
NLD Amsterdam
NLD Amsterdam, Amsterdams Historisch Museum : commissionar
NLD Amsterdam, Maatschappij voor Oude en Nieuwe Media : organizer

where/when
locations
(1995) CZE Prague, National Gallery Prague (valdstejnská jízdarná)
(1995) DEU Karlsruhe, Multimediale: Zentrum fur Kunst und Medientechnologie (ZKM)
(1996) NLD Amsterdam, Maatschappij voor Oude en Nieuwe Media: Waaggebouw; Theatrum Anatomicum


1657/1967; Comenius (1592-1671); The Great Didactic/Didactica Magna; Many of these the pedagogic ideas of Comenius are relevant for our educational practice; his usage of language makes us see things afresh.

1993; Tijen, Tjebbe van/Vojtechovsky, Milos; Orbis Pictus Revised : an interactive installation a project proposal by ...; outcome of study for the Amsterdam Historical Museum on the Comenius project.

1997; Article; Tijen, Tjebbe van/Vojtechovsky, Milos ; Intercommunication : a journal exploring the frontiers of art and technology; Tokyo; vsiual article about Orbis Pictus Revised.

1997; Schwarz, Hans-Peter; Media , art , history : Media Museum ZKM , Center for Art and Media Karlsruhe; there is a description of the 'touching and feeling' installation in this book/catalogue of the ZKM mediemuseum.

1997; Itoh, Toshiharu; Inter Medium Textbook; Inter medium Institute/Korinsha Press; Kyoto; a special publication on new media history because of its nice selection of visual examples: 120 loose photo cards come with it in a box; 'touching and feeling' interface is one of them.
35

Neo-Shamanism: Hand Scrolls 1997
Fred Gales (author)
Tjebbe van Tijen (author)
10 contributing persons
5 contributing organizations
1 locations

who
persons
Bakker, Frank: scroll printing
Gales, Fred: concept
Glas, Aram: graphic design scrolls
Haensel, Bart: pictogram design
Legene, Suzan: curator
Leusink, Gerd-Jan: object design and construction
Oklobdzija, Mira: support
Tijen, Tjebbe van: concept, editorial work scrolls, research
Visser, Hans: silkscreen
Wahedi, Mazdak: schablone

organizations
NLD Amsterdam, Imaginary Museum Projects: production
NLD Amsterdam, Obibio: sponsor
NLD Amsterdam, Tropenmuseum : commissionar
NLD Amsterdam, Universiteitsbibliotheek Amsterdam : content provider
NLD Haarlem, Uitgeverij Knipscheer: content provider

where/when
locations
(1997-1998) NLD Amsterdam, Tropenmuseum


1951/1964; Eliade, Mircea (1907-1986); Shamanism : archaic techniques of ecstasy; one of the classic texts on shamanism (in the last decade this text has found its critics...).

1980/1990; Harner, Michael; The way of the shaman; Harner is an anthropologist who has later did find wide acclaim in the realm of 'new age' people. This book is a serious description of shamanistic methods for this age..

1997; Gales, Fred/Tijen, Tjebbe van; Nedersjamanen in neoland : rapport in opdracht van het Tropenmuseum voor de komende tentoonstelling van Siberië tot Cyberspace; Report on new forms of shamanism for 'Tropen Museum' Amsterdam that formed the basis for the installation .
36

Neo-Shamanism: Horizontal Drum in yurt 1997
Fred Gales (author)
Tjebbe van Tijen (author)
28 contributing persons
6 contributing organizations
1 locations

who
persons
Asch, Jan van: content super-natural radio voices
Berge, Hans Cornelis ten: content shamanism, inspirator, voice Dutch
Boersma, Pieter: photography
Bosch, Robert: sound recording
Braak, Krijn ter: voice Dutch
Brinkman, Jorgen: interface hardware research
Burleson, Felix: voice Surinam-Dutch
Cairo, Edgar: content Winti
Ceriez, Meriam: content shamanism
Gales, Fred: concept, sound design, sound production
Grootveld, Robert Jasper: content anti-smoke magician Provo
Haensel, Bart: pictogram design
Hartzema, Robert: photography and sound recording Jos Soos
Heijn, Jan: content Oibibio, sponsor
Hoogveld, Frank: object design and construction
Hurk, Yvonne van der: voice Dutch
Kamperhout, Daan: content shamanism
Klaassen, Piet: technical advice drums
Knipscheer, Frank: support (publisher Edgar Cairo’s work)
Legene, Suzan: curator
Molenkamp, Rob: picture research
Oklobdzija, Mira: support
Perasovic, Benjamin: content ‘tance dance’
Pixley, Rolf: software development
Prins, Jan: content shamanism
Tijen, Tjebbe van: concept, production, research
Vinkenoog, Simon: advice neo-shamanism, voice Dutch
Visser, Hans: silkscreen

organizations
NLD Amsterdam, Imaginary Museum Projects: production
NLD Amsterdam, Obibio: sponsor
NLD Amsterdam, Tropenmuseum : commissionar
NLD Amsterdam, Universiteitsbibliotheek Amsterdam : content provider
NLD Haarlem, Spaarnestad Archief : content provider
NLD Haarlem, Uitgeverij Knipscheer: content provider

where/when
locations
(1997-1998) NLD Amsterdam, Tropenmuseum

 
37

what
The work reviews historically different forms of shamanism - one could say a non-electronic form of telepresence -. Fibre information systems from the Inca age 'quipu' to glass fibre cables mark the space in which a big drum is standing as the main interface. Two other interactive installations give the opportunity to relate information on the Internet on shamanism with stone age creation myths.
The drum is not a 'mock up' but a real percussion instrument with a special prepared drumhead that serves also as a projection screen. Also there are the sixteen pictograms, printed on the drumhead at regular intervals around the border. The pictograms represent the different sequences. By hitting a pictogram with the (special) drumstick a sequence is chosen. The first image will be an enlargement of the pictogram with a spoken short title of the sequence. The sequences are long picture collages that scroll in different directions through the circular space of the drumhead and have a length that varies between one and two minutes. At any moment the user can switch to another sequence.

The catalogue of the exhibition had a kind of poetic description of the functioning of the installation:

There is another realm at the other side of the stream of messages contained in knots and flashes, traveling at the speed of running and light.

Fibres of cotton and wool, of copper and glass, are twisted in pairs, connecting the ongoing search for meaning in life, from stone age to cyber age.

Take off your shoes. Sit down on these islands of unspun wool. use the mysterious coil and magic wand to decode questions embedded in stones an barcodes... Who are we? Why are we here?

The answers given in creation myth. Myth organizes the way we understand ourselves and the world, but these original myths, from different cultures, hardly survive the globalization process of our age.

We can re-create our understanding of the world by comparing these different myths, extracting the archetypes, discovering the similarities of views from a variety of viewpoints.

This gives the opportunity to redefine value structures, create a new unity of spirit and matter, mind and body.

Myth is kept alive through ceremonies and rituals. The shaman is the creator of ritual. By turning inward the shaman can reach outward into other realms of existence, being the messenger between this and the other worlds.

If one wants to learn about these spiritual methods one has to cross the bridge. step over the abyss. enter the sanctuary within the magic circle, and call the shaman messenger with the sound of the drum.

You will be shown sixteen ways of the shaman as seen from different times and cultures, in perspectives ranging from belief to disbelief.

Thus hidden spirits become visible in a mirror casting their shadows on the skin of the drum.


why
The exhibition “Portable Sacred Grounds: Telepresence World” reviews telepresence technology and its concept from the viewpoints focused on the nature of "collaboration", "memory and unconsciousness", "spiritual exchange", "primitivism", "multilayered reality" and "sacredness" to discover a new vision of the world. It proceeds through information space and present new form of sacred grounds such as "remote coexistence" where participant accesses to a virtual space to foster a new world and "telepast" where past and present resonate together. Participant will experience the fascinating world of images where boundaries - as for West/East, past/present and interior/exterior - do not exist.

There were four works:
- "Terra Present / Terra Past" 1998; ART+COM
- "The World Generator / The Engine of Desire" 1996 ­ 1998; Bill SEAMAN , programmer Gideon MAY
- "Garden of Memory" 1998; MINATO Chihiro , MORIWAKI Hiroyuki
- "Neo Shamanism" 1998; Tjebbe VAN TIJEN , Fred GALES


Neo-Shamanism: Vertical Drum 1998
Fred Gales (author)
Tjebbe van Tijen (author)
21 contributing persons
6 contributing organizations
1 locations

who
persons
Bertalosi, Italo: photography Ainu
Boots, Maaike: production management Japanese
Bosch, Robert: hard/software integration, sound recording
Fukuzawa, Shuichi: sound editing Japanese
Gales, Fred: concept, sound design, sound production
Haensel, Bart: pictogram design
Hoogveld, Frank: object design and construction
Inui, Yoshikazu: management
Ito, Toshiharu: curator
Kakudate, Masahide: exhibition lighting design
Klaassen, Piet: technical advice drums
Kondo, Noriko Vroonen: translation Dutch/Japanese
Kraan, Peter van der Pouw: scanning
Mogaki, Hiroko: voice Japanese
Nishijima, Noriko: voice Japanese
Pixley, Rolf: software development
Plas, Wim: hard/software integration
Tijen, Tjebbe van: concept, production
Ueno, Toshiya: translation in Japanese Provo text, voice Japanese
Wakabayashi, Yayoi: management
Walraven, Boudewijn: advice Korean shamanism, photography mudango

organizations
JPN Tokyo, BOCTOK: production support
JPN Tokyo, Inter Communication Center NTT : accommodator, commissionar
NLD Amsterdam, Imaginary Museum Projects: production
NLD Amsterdam, Tropenmuseum : supporter
NLD Amsterdam, Universiteitsbibliotheek Amsterdam : content provider
NLD Haarlem, Spaarnestad Archief : content provider

where/when
locations
(1998) JPN Tokyo, PORTABLE SACRED GROUNDS - Telepresence World; with four installations: Art & Com, Terra Present/past; Bill Seaman/Gideon May, The world generator; Chihiro Minato, Garden of memory; and Fred Gales/Tjebbe van Tijen, neo-Shamanism.: Inter Communication Center (ICC/NTT)


1998; Itoh, Toshiharu; Portable sacred grounds : telepresence worlds (1998) [ICC Intercommunication Center; Tokyo]; catalogue of exhibtion with the Neo-Shamanism'project as one of four installations.
38

Neo-Shamanism: Stones and Primordial Myth 1998
Fred Gales (author)
Tjebbe van Tijen (author)
15 contributing persons
6 contributing organizations
1 locations

who
persons
Berge, Hans Cornelis ten: advice creation myth
Boots, Maaike: production management Japanese
Bosch, Robert: sound recording
Egger, Philippe: stones preparation
Fukuzawa, Shuichi: sound editing Japanese
Gales, Fred: concept, sound design, sound production
Inui, Yoshikazu: management
Ito, Toshiharu: curator
Kakudate, Masahide: exhibition lighting design
Kondo, Noriko Vroonen: translation English/Japanese
Koot, Winanda: stones preparation
Leusink, Gerd-Jan: object design and construction
Pixley, Rolf: hard/software integration, interaction design
Tijen, Tjebbe van: concept, production
Wakabayashi, Yayoi: management

organizations
JPN Tokyo, BOCTOK: production support
JPN Tokyo, Inter Communication Center NTT : accommodator, commissionar
NLD Amsterdam, Geologische Faculteit Vrije Universiteit (VU): stone preparation
NLD Amsterdam, Imaginary Museum Projects: production
NLD Amsterdam, Stenoscoop: stone preparation
NLD Emmen, Cross Point: contractor transponder

where/when
locations
(1998) JPN Tokyo, PORTABLE SACRED GROUNDS - Telepresence World; with four installations: Art & Com, Terra Present/past; Bill Seaman/Gideon May, The world generator; Chihiro Minato, Garden of memory; and Fred Gales/Tjebbe van Tijen, neo-Shamanism.: Inter Communication Center (ICC/NTT)


1989; Rätsch, Christian/Guhr, Andreas; Lexikon der Zaubersteine aus ethnologischer Sicht; Lexicon of magic stones; one of the rare works on this subject that go beyond the regular 'esoteric amateurism'.

1991; Sproul, Barbera C.; Primal myths : creation myths around the world; one of the source used for the narrated origin myths.
39

Neo-Shamanism: Cyber-Shamanism 1998
Fred Gales (author)
Tjebbe van Tijen (author)
10 contributing persons
4 contributing organizations
1 locations

who
persons
Gales, Fred: concept
Inui, Yoshikazu: management
Ito, Toshiharu: curator
Kakudate, Masahide: exhibition lighting design
Kraan, Peter van der Pouw: production
Leusink, Gerd-Jan: object design and construction
Pixley, Rolf: software development
Tijen, Tjebbe van: concept, database
Tobu, Akiko: installing
Wakabayashi, Yayoi: management

organizations
JPN Tokyo, BOCTOK: production support
JPN Tokyo, Inter Communication Center NTT : accommodator, commissionar
JPN Tokyo, Wacom Japan: sponsor
NLD Amsterdam, Imaginary Museum Projects: production

where/when
locations
(1998) JPN Tokyo, PORTABLE SACRED GROUNDS - Telepresence World; with four installations: Art & Com, Terra Present/past; Bill Seaman/Gideon May, The world generator; Chihiro Minato, Garden of memory; and Fred Gales/Tjebbe van Tijen, neo-Shamanism.: Inter Communication Center (ICC/NTT)

 
40

Neo-Shamanism: Quipu cords and optical fibres 1998
Fred Gales (author)
Tjebbe van Tijen (author)
12 contributing persons
4 contributing organizations
1 locations

who
persons
Beukers, Henriet: advice textile
Gales, Fred: concept
Inui, Yoshikazu: management
Ito, Toshiharu: curator
Kakudate, Masahide: exhibition lighting design
Kooren, Walter: technical advice fibre optics
Leusink, Gerd-Jan: object design and construction
Overbeek, Mariet: textile design and quipu cord production
Tijen, Tjebbe van: concept
Tobu, Akiko: installing
Wakabayashi, Yayoi: management
Yongsuwan, Suphab: quipu knotting

organizations
JPN Tokyo, BOCTOK: production support
JPN Tokyo, Inter Communication Center NTT : accommodator, commissionar
NLD Amsterdam, Imaginary Museum Projects: production
NLD Schiedam, Qcat: technical advice

where/when
locations
(1998) JPN Tokyo, PORTABLE SACRED GROUNDS - Telepresence World; with four installations: Art & Com, Terra Present/past; Bill Seaman/Gideon May, The world generator; Chihiro Minato, Garden of memory; and Fred Gales/Tjebbe van Tijen, neo-Shamanism.: Inter Communication Center (ICC/NTT)


1981; Ascher, Marcia/Ascher, Robert; Code of the Quipu; a study in media, mathematics, and culture; A book on ethno mathematics that was used as a manual to twine and knot the fluorescent quipu cords used in the neo-Shamanism installation.
41

what
The installation has three movable elements and one fixed element. The movable elements are: hand size objects, shadow figures, and playing cards. Of each of these elements there are 50 or more. All these elements have embedded radio-like sensors (transponders). The fixed element is a 'magic mirror' that can "read" the movable elements and according to what is presented to it can display different sequences of sound and images. The movable elements, objects, shadow figures and cards are placed without any order around the magic mirror. The users of the installation can play this language game by picking up the objects or other elements and move them in front of the magic mirror.

objects as words for things
... a quantity of fifty or more objects depicting things from the real and imagined world like animals, plants, human body parts, vehicles, tools, mythical and cartoon figures, symbolic representations. These objects have originally been made for different kind of use: toy, souvenir, decoration, instruction... They are all somewhat similar in size and their original colors have been covered with a gray layer, emphasizing their tactile character. The objects can be either directly on the floor or on low plates or carpets. They are not in any special order, the public can pick them up at will and put them back where ever they like. Each of these objects has a 'transponder' embedded that will trigger an audiovisual event when the object is held at a close distance of the magic mirror.

words as shadows of things
... a quantity of fifty or so pictogram like cut outs/schablones of a sturdy grayish material, fastened to a thin long stick are placed in holders. The schablone images can be of different origin: silhouettes of real things, heraldics, emblems, family crests (kamon), modern pictograms and other elements of the historical vocabulary of visual language. In the middle of each schablone a thin and flat transponder is attached. By holding the schablone in front of the magic mirror sound and images will be triggered as described before.

questions giving meaning to words
... small hard cards are set in boxes at both sides of the Sensor/Display (4). These cards can have words, pictures, symbols that link to the objects or shadow figures. They can be picked at will and held at the center of the magic mirror. These cards have transponders as well. Once sensed they will trigger sound or image events that will prompt the public to answer by picking up either an object or shadow figure. Questions can be real sounds of beings or things, onomatopoeia, words spoken in different languages or symbols. A wide scala of such 'questions' can be imagined with both simple and more complicated ways of answering (finding and sensing single Objects and Schablones, or searching for groups that match). These questions will be pre-configured but one can easily imagine an extension of the installation whereby the public, on the spot, can formulate questions themselves and instantly store them in a 'Question trigger card' (using a console with a card reader/writer or another kind of interface).


answers that raise new questions
... the magic mirror that functions as both sensor and image and sound emitter, is hanging free in the middle of the space. It will react to the communication with objects, shadow figures and playing cards. These reactions can be both answers and questions. Technically it consists of a circular glass plate (approximate 1 meter), suspended from the ceiling, on the outside a thin coil of copper wire embedded in the glass and the inner part of the glass plate matted to function as a back-projection surface. The glass plate is also used as a vibrating sound emitting surface using a special kind of small contact-loudspeaker. When a hand size object is held in the center of the glass plate, the embedded code of that object will be sensed by the embedded antenna and its unique code transmitted to a computer that will activate related sound and image events. Except for the glass plate, its suspending wires (that can be also be used for the necessary data transfer) and the small size contact loudspeaker, no equipment will be visible. Projection on the center of the glass plate will come from a LCD projector positioned on the ceiling (or floor) using a special mirror that is positioned at some distance at the heart of the circular glass plate.

The computer will have a database with all the unique transponder codes of the Objects, Schablones and Question-cards. It will link instantly the specific image and sound sequences. Without going in much detail now, a short list of possible sequence elements can be given: real sounds of a thing or being; sound symbols/onomatopoeia; name or other brief description; definitions from different times, cultures, sources; symbol for group of things/genera; series of images of members of such genera (dog/dogs, chair/chairs, tree/trees, ear/ears); taxonomies in which single things/being are classified (tableau's/diagrams) different allegoric representation of things/beings in heraldics, emblem art, comics.


why
This project design was made after I received a demand from the new media center in Sendai in north Japan that opened in 1999/2000. There seems not to have been sufficient money to commission this project, so it has remained just a proposal. The following is taken from the original proposal:

The idea of having hand size objects as an interface to trigger image and sound sequences (as in the table interface in the Orbis Pictus project), will come back in a different form. I used the same technical principle of object sensing in a more recent installation on shamanism (with different stones and fossils as an entry to narrated creation myths; a project together with Fred Gales). A study, last year, for an essay related to the work of Agnes Hegedus on personal memorabilia (Artintact no.5) has stimulated my interest in, and deepened my understanding of the use of man made objects as memory and language devices. Earlier ideas to use sound imitating words, onomatopoeia, in an interactive installation (the speaking and listening interface of the first Orbis Pictus project in 1994), can be part of this new proposal. It might also be possible to integrate some of the Orbis Pictus material where the change in definitions of 'things' over three centuries, from Comenius to modern times, is made audible and visible. Adding material from the Japanese perspective seems to me essential. Last, there is a possibility to include an association of ideas from two ongoing studies, one on pictograms in the context of the history of visual language, and the other on shadow plays in different times and cultures. Recycling and recombining older ideas, for me, is not a repetition because of a lack of inspiration, but a possibility to extend and deepen what I have learned.
(...)
The proposed 'installation' intends to make it possible to playfully learn what language is about. The concepts are based on the never ending debate on origin and function of human language with such now famous participants as Plato, Kukai, Augustinus, Bacon, Comenius, Locke, Leibniz, Swift, Humboldt, Sausure, Neurath, Wittgenstein, Piaget, Foucault, Eco and lesser known, equally important people that where gripped by questions of language as John Wilkins, Lancelot Hogben, Kees Boeke, Francis Yates, Roger Brown, Krzysztof Pomian, Yukio Ota, Robin Allott. I have no intention to impress the reader by 'dropping all those names', the list of names is of course incomplete and from some points of view inconsistent, I only use these names to illustrate the variety of opinions and the multiple perspectives that I want to use as starting points for the process that will lead to the making of the 'installation'.

The Gate of Language Unlocked 1999
(project design)

Tjebbe van Tijen (author)
1 contributing persons
1 contributing organizations
1 locations

who
persons
Tijen, Tjebbe van: concept

organizations
NLD Amsterdam, Imaginary Museum Projects: production

where/when
locations
(2001->) INTERNET imaginarymuseum.org, website: Imaginary Museum Projects


0835/1972; Kukai, (774-835)/Hakeda, Yoshito S.; Kukai major works; translated, with an account of his life and a study of his thought by Yoshita S. Hakeda; The five great elements have vibrations; Each of the ten worlds has its language;....

1657/1967; Comenius, [Jan Amos Kamensky] (1592-1671)/Piaget, Jean (1896-1980); The Great Didactic/Didactica Magna

1726/1840; Swift, Jonathan (1667-1745); Travels into several remote nations of the world; including the visit to the Academy of Laputa and the professor who speaks by using objects.

1953/1999; Wittgenstein, Ludwig (1889-1951)/Anscombe, Gertrude Elizabeth Margaret (1919-); Philosophical investigations/Philosophische Untersuchungen; I shall also call the whole [of language], consisting of language and the actions into which it is woven, the 'language-game.'.
42

what
Condensing the complex issues of almost a century of aerial bombardments and the targeting and hitting of humans and human habitat, by juxtaposing fragments of historical documents relating to the different actors in this theater of war, both perpetrators and victims: politicians, civil servants, scientists, industrialists, military personnel, civilians. Choosing a significant number and a representative variety of bombed cities from the complete list of approximate 400 towns in the world that have been bombed in the last 90 years. Dramatizing the historical documents that belong to the chosen examples, by using interactive audiovisual media. With each chosen dramatized example, showing comparable examples (just in text form, diagrams or maps) from the complete list, to make the magnitude of destruction always understood.

Letting the voices of the victims of bombing be heard by quoting from the vast arsenal of personal accounts that have been published the last nine decades in different countries that have suffered bombing attacks. Making a choice of such writings and translating them in the languages needed in the country or countries where the installation will be shown. Setting up an international network of concerned people: archivists, artists, people who have witnessed a bombing, local journalists, peace activists, translators, photographers, etc., who will share their knowledge by adding it to a public accessible database which will be made available over the Internet.

Interfaces:

Stones
Bureaucratic procedures for choosing targets can lead to the actual destruction of human habitat. High technology is used to bomb people back into the stone age. Images of this destruction, frozen in engraved tombstones, can be personally captured. Rubbings made on paper with charcoal can be taken home. Before proceeding to the other parts of the installation you can wash your hands in 'innocence'.

Desks
There is an inescapable relation between the targeting and destruction of the human habitat and the reconstruction afterwards. However devastating and cruel the attack, none of the towns bombed by modern technology have been wiped of the face of the earth definitely. The office-desk and the drawing-table are the two symbols that stand at the beginning and end of this process of destruction and recreation. They are the interface to interact with the vast amount of digitized historical data. The office desk stands for the bombing and the architect drawing table for the reconstruction.

Sitting at an office desk with drawers full of files with the names of target cities and target areas. Going through these files, taking out one, opening it and study the details. Opening the other drawer of the desk and going through the arsenal of possible weapons. Choosing the right weapon that belongs to how the chosen target fits in space and time. Bombing the target and turn around on your office chair, looking to what was there before and what after. Having the opportunity to turn away from the desk, asking yourself: "what have I done?"

Sitting at the drawing table of the urban planner, making an inventory of the war damage, thinking up new plans, deciding what to keep, what to knock down after all. Turning your chair, looking at what was before, at what came after, maybe turning around and ask yourself: "what have I done?".

By pointing a hand size symbolic model of an airplane up and down, the visitor can listen to narrated fragments from those who were bombing and those who have been bombed.

In a similar way, at the drawing table, the visitor can listen to stories of both the planners and the ones that have been planned, by moving a special drawing pencil up and down over the table


why
The idea for the Umbombing Project came after a visit to Tokyo in 1995. At first I could not understand why only such a few older buildings and landmarks could be seen, and I was shocked to discover that a great part of this huge city had been torched and burnt down during aerial bombing campaigns of the USA Air Force in March-July 1945. I was ashamed not to know that over a hundred thousand people died, probably more than the death toll taken by the atom bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945. As 1995 was the 50 years anniversary of the dropping of the atom bombs, an international debate arose. A discussion partly triggered by a proposed exhibition in the American Smithsonian Institute of Technology of the airplane that dropped the atom bombs, the Enola Gay. (...) 1995 was also the year in which discussion lists on the Internet started booming and many people from the USA, Japan, the world over, used this new discussion medium.

The discussion was marked by an obvious split between right and wrong, victors and defeated, aggressor and counter-aggressor. It did not sufficiently address the wider problem of the use of aerial bombing: ways of waging war whereby civilians run even more risk to be killed than soldiers.

The Unbombing Project is an attempt to go beyond the dichotomized way of discussing war. It raises questions on the massive use of air power during World War II as a means to defeat Nazi Germany, fascist Italy, and imperial Japan (it certainly does not fail to document the indiscriminate and vicious attacks by the air forces of these Axis countries); it raises questions on the practice of "terror-bombing", not aimed at military or economic targets, but at the morale of the population, and thus at their lives. A military strategy that has not sufficiently been put in question, and even continued during the Korean and Vietnam/Indochina wars. The post World War II international tribunals of Nuremberg and Tokyo failed to address the issue of aerial bombing and the hundred thousands of victims it caused. This has left a moral-vacuum, especially on the side of the British, the Americans and allied countries that had a major involvement in the air war (Canada, South Africa, Australia). This moral-vacuum is easily filled with anti-Western, anti-American, sentiments. (...)

Air power (aerial bombing and missile attack) continues to be used in the last decades. Not just by 'First World', "Western powers" like the United States or Great Britain but also by 'Second World' powers like the Soviet Union and its offspring, the Russian Federation, as in the case of Afghanistan and Chechnya. 'Thirds World' nations have joined in, as in the cases of Eritrea, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Congo, Angola, and Columbia. Air power is a tool both for internal repression in civil war like situations (Nicaragua, Columbia, Congo, Sierra Leone, Sudan and Sri Lanka) and old fashioned interstate wars like the one between Iran and Iraq. There certainly is a decline in the number of bombing victims, massive and indiscriminate targeting of urban areas is not anymore on the military agenda, as public opinion and its management has become part of 'the military operation'. Nevertheless Gulf, Balkan and Afghanistan Wars saw "unintentional" killing, in spite of the praised "precision" of modern weapons. (...)

A historical reconciliation process, of bombing humans and human habitat, is still needed, a process that starts with attempts at "truth finding" and "truth telling", which will reveal that there is more than one truth, which will give some understanding of the military-industrial-complex and the weakness of political decision-makers dealing with it; a process which lets us listen to those from the past who spoke against massive bombing and torching of cities and villages, against the spraying of poison, the casting of cluster bomb; a process in which the voices of the aircrews that risked and often gave their lives, must be heard as well. For many fighters of the air war it has been more than just following orders, it was a fight against totalitarian and murderous regimes, or a defense of the own nation, putting at risk their own lives. Of course this is raising questions in hindsight, but still they need to be posed. Evading them and rigidly continue to foster historical self-righteousness will be impossible. The present is changing and the past will be reappraised.

[The full text can be found on the Unbombing web pages see link in column at your right]
Unbombing the World 1999->
Tjebbe van Tijen (author)
8 contributing persons
4 contributing organizations
4 locations

who
persons
Bishop, Ryan: support
Diedrich, Axel: support
Kraan, Peter van der Pouw: scanning
Lovink, Geert: interviewer, support
Melis, Liesbeth: magazine editor Open
Tijen, Tjebbe van: concept, database
Ven, Frans van der: support
Vermeij, Eef: support

organizations
NLD Amsterdam, Imaginary Museum Projects: production
NLD Amsterdam, Stichting SKOR: publisher
NLD Amsterdam, Universiteitsbibliotheek Amsterdam : content provider
NLD Rotterdam, NAi Publisher: publisher

where/when
locations
(2002) NLD Rotterdam, Beyond Archigram lectures: Academie voor Bouwkunst
(2004) AUS Melbourne, Cultural Heritage Center For Asia and the Pacific (CHCAP): University of Deakin Melbourne
(2004) NLD Amsterdam, periodical published: Open, cahier on art and the public domain
(2004) SGP Singapore, The City as Target conference: University of Singapore


1937; Timperley, Harold John (1898-); What war means : the Japanese terror in China : a documentary record; A detailed report on the japanese attack on several Chinese cities in 1937, including aerial bombing.

1959; Osada, Arata/Dan, Jean; Children of the A-bomb : testament of the boys and girls of Hiroshima; One example of books with testimonies of Japanese bombing victims..

1968; American aircraft systematically attack dams and dikes in the D.R.V.N [[Foreign Languages Pub . House; Hanoi]; North Vietnamese report on aerial bombing..

1972; Book; Elliot, Gil (1931-) ; Twentieth century book of the dead; I read this book in 1974 and ever since it helped me to understand the importance of numbers when studying human violence..

1974; Taylor, John William Ransom (1922-); A history of aerial warfare; An earlier popular book that has the merit to show some images of the less known inter-bellum period of last century with the British, French, Italians, Americans and Germans experimenting with what sometimes was euphemistically called "aerial policing"..

1993; Durth, Werner (1949-)/Gutschow, Niels (1941-) ; Traume in Trümmern : Stadtplanung 1940-1950; (dreams and rubble, urban planning 1940-1950); how aerial bombing influenced German urban policy..

1996; Werrell, Kenneth P. ; Blankets of fire, U.S. bombers over Japan during World War II; [Smithsonian Institution Press; Washington/London].

1999/2001; Lindqvist, Sven (1932-); A history of bombing; A book that I dsicovered after making the 'Unbombing' concept. It has somel parallels, because it is one of those rare books covering aerial bombing on a global scale and from the very beginning..

1999/2002; Sebald, W.G; Luftkrieg und Literatur; A book that has raised strong debates first in Germany, later also outside. How Ger,man literature failed to represent the victim role of the civil German population..

1999/2001; Tijen, Tjebbe van; Unbombing the World 1911-2001 : 90 years areial bombing of the human habitat, a proposal for an installation on the history and future of planned destruction and reconstruction; web pages Imaginary Museum Projects with also several pdf files including the databse of bombded towns, villages and other non-military tarhets/hits.

2004; Lovink, Geert; Unbombing & Ars Memoria : an interview with Tjebbe van Tijen; in: Open, cahier on art and the public domain; special issue ("No) Memory ; storing and recalling in cintemporary art and culture.
43

what
"The true source of religion", a design for an installation for the Berliner Festspiele exhibition in the year 2000 called "Seven Hills - Images and Signs of the 21st Century" (In the end the project has not been realized because of insufficient financial resources). This installation recycles some elements from the Neo-Shamanism installation.

The design was for the Schliemann Hall of the end of the 19th century Gropius-Bau in Berlin, a huge space once dedicated to the (debated) treasures of Troy found by Heinrich Schliemann. The floor of the space was planned to be covered with sand with drawings/patterns from different cultures of the world. The public could move through this space by walking on a spiraling path of stepping stones. These ceramic stones would each have the picture of a religious or scientific diagram, thus make the visitor step through millennia of human ideas. The following text is taken from the original proposal:

Lay down in a hammock, from which rivers of white light flow, and dream away, rocking to and fro in an ocean of sound.

Touch the loom of god and see how heaven and earth are woven together by patterns of light. 

Feel the traces in the sand, temporal signs of eternity; step from stone to stone on a path leading to sacred and scientific insight. 

Hit the drum and call the messenger, let him show you the sixteen ways of the shaman. 

Put a petrified object on a magic mirror revealing different parts of the mythosphere. 

Try to unravel the outdated messages in knotted cords and guess the opened ended questions in unconnected wires and cables. 

Enter the yurt, a network of woven wood, recite the barcode mantras, connect to myriads of belief on the World Wide Web.

Unroll the scrolls, be iniated in the sources of shamanistic knowledge. 


why
The theme of the part of the exhibition which we were commissioned to make was: the Oceanic Feeling. This notion comes from the correspondence of Sigmund Freud with Romain Rolland:

"A feeling as of something limitless unbounded -as it were oceanic a sensation of eternity"

Freud summarized a passage from a letter written to him by the French writer Romain Rolland in a reaction of Freud's interpretation of "religion as an illusion" (The Future of an Illusion, 1927). Rolland agreed with Freud's judgment on religion itself, but thought that Freud had not properly appreciated "the true source of religious sentiments", after which follows Rolland's description of what came to be known as "The Oceanic Feeling".
True Source of Religion project design for Berliner Festspiele 2000
Fred Gales (author)
Tjebbe van Tijen (author)
6 contributing persons
2 contributing organizations
1 locations

who
persons
Baumunk, Bodo-Michael: commissionar
Bosch, Robert: technical advice
Gales, Fred: concept
Leusink, Gerd-Jan: object design
Thimme, Eva Maria: curator
Tijen, Tjebbe van: concept

organizations
DEU Berlin, Berliner Festspiele : commissionar
NLD Amsterdam, Imaginary Museum Projects: production

where/when
locations
(2001->) INTERNET imaginarymuseum.org, website: Imaginary Museum Projects


1930/1969; Freud, Sigmund (1856-1939); Civilization and its discontents [Translated by Joan Riviere, revised and newly edited by James Strachey

1980; Broos, Hein/Vries, Mirja de/Westerveld, Bab; Heksenspel touwfigure; a very compact and handy and cute book on 'string figures' produced in the Netherlands in the seventies; relates to the 'loom of God' part of the installation.

1987/1998; Ifrah, Georges (1947-); The universal history of numbers; from the prehistory to the invention of the computer; Famous book by French mathematics teacher with a global and sweeping view; references to knot and string systems.

1991; Ascher, Marcia (1935-); Ethnomathematics : a multicultural view of mathematical ideas; references to sand figures in different cultures.

1994; Sargent, Denn; Global ritualism : myth and magic around the world; One of those popular books on world religions, but in its focus on rituals and, showing some images at least - still quiet unique as compared to the mass of over-detailed anthropological resources in this field.

2000; Gales, Fred/Tijen, Tjebbe van; THE TRUE SOURCE OF RELIGION an interactive installation by ... [web pages with details of design]
44

Paradox of Traceless Art visual lecture 2000->
Tjebbe van Tijen (author)
8 contributing persons
6 contributing organizations
4 locations

who
persons
Balint, Anna: initiator book version of scrolls
Bismarck, Beatrice von: editor of book version
Gales, Fred: graphics production
Kohei, Sugiura: invitation for lecture
Shaw, Jeffrey: invitation for lecture
Suzuki, Akira: support
Thackara, John: commissionar
Tijen, Tjebbe van: computer graphics, concept, speaker

organizations
DEU Köln, Verlag der Buchandlung Walther K nig: publisher
DEU Lüneburg, Kunstraum der Universität Lüneburg: publisher
JPN Tokyo, Tokyo Geidai (art academy): content provider (through library)
NLD Amsterdam, Doors of Perception : commissionar
NLD Amsterdam, Imaginary Museum Projects: production
NLD Amsterdam, Universiteitsbibliotheek Amsterdam : content provider

where/when
locations
(2000) NLD Amsterdam, vsiual lecture: RAI Congress Center
(2001) JPN Kobe, visual lecture: Kobe Design University
(2002) DEU K ln, Lüneburg, book published: Interacrive, archival practices and sites in the contemporary art field
(2004) AUS Sydney, visual lecture: University of New South Wales Fine Art Department


2002; Bismarck, Beatrice von/ and others; interarchive : Archivarische Praktiken und Handlungsräume im zeitgenössischen Kunstfeld / Archival practices and sites in the contemporary art field (2002) [Kunstraum der Universität Lünenburg/Verlag der Buchhandlung Walther König; Köln; p.639; 27 cm]; A small version of these five scrolls is published in this big collection on art and archives..
45

what
Psycho-geography is the art that tries to record and understand the influence of the outer environment on the human mind and vice versa. Literary psycho-geography is the expression of this phenomena in literature, whereby literature is taken in its widest possible sense: any writing that manages to capture the influence of a particular part of a city or landscape on the human mind, or a person's projection of inner feelings or moods onto the outer environment. Well versed literary texts, poetry, novels or theatre plays, but also popular fiction, comic books, journalistic writing, songs, films, official reports and advertisement slogans, all these can have fragments or passages that capture 'psycho-geographic moments' in descriptive text. All these scattered text fragments, when put together, will make it possible to 'read' the life story of the (city) landscape, to 'map' it's changes of atmosphere and mood. Books make this liaison with the past possible, they are an interface to learn about a town. This relation can also be reversed: learning about books and their authors by drifting through the city landscape.

These short psycho-geographic text fragments form the basis for the interactive installation. The quotes will be dramatised by actors reading them and artists illustrating them with computer graphics based on image material from the same epoch as the text fragments. This will result in a big quantity of audio-visual sequences that can be accessed by choosing books from a bookshelf and 'reading' the quotes on an electronic table, that literary mirrors the moods of the text. An electronic chamber screen will display the context of these book passages in time, space and atmosphere. Each user will make her or his own peregrination through this multitude of choices. In this way it becomes possible to experience and compare, through time, the life of two cities at opposite sites of the globe: Tokyo and Amsterdam. Contrasting cities, the one a macro-polis, possibly the largest city of the world, the other a mini-polis, a world village.

Each visitor will get a personal electronic badge which will make the installation react in one of the three languages: Japanese, Dutch or English. There are two rooms, constructed as on a film set, one Japanese the other in Dutch style, with the same features: a wall with a window and bookshelves, a table, a chair or cushion and a chamber screen. 

On the bookshelves a few hundred books with bookmarks pointing to psycho-geographic descriptions of either Tokyo or Amsterdam. 

At each page with such a short quote, there is a leaf with, at each side, a translation in one of the two other languages. These books can be perused and taken to the reading table. 

The reading table top has a mirroring surface. One sits down, puts a book on the table, chooses one of the book marked pages by using a special wireless reading pen and immediately the book passage will be read in the chosen language while relating images will become visible in the mirror surface of the table (the moving image is projected on the 
ceiling of the room). Pointing the special reading pen to the chamber screen will trigger a display on this screen of a series of overlaying maps that show time, space and mood of the quote that just has been narrated.
Other passages from the same or other books can be chosen. Each time the map on the chamber screen will be extended showing patterns that visualise the virtual movements of the visitor through time and space. When leaving the exhibition space the visitor can take her or his personal psycho-geographic wandering home in one of the different formats available: as a print out, a videotape or as a computer file on disk, or have it send to a personal Email address. 


why
Tokyo and Amsterdam. Contrasting cities, the one a macro-polis, possibly the largest city of the world, the other a mini-polis, a world village. There are some similarities: both cities are a little over half millennium in age, both are harbour cities at the seaside with a history linked to rivers, waterways and reclaiming of land, but that is a feature that, logically, many big cities in the world have in common. The differences are much more obvious: the contrast between the vast amount of remainders of different periods of the past in Amsterdam and the apparent lack of it in Tokyo. Though that is nothing more than a strong first impression, as each landscape, each city has hidden layers of their past and one needs time to learn to read them in the present. There is the famous half moon shaped girdle of the 17th and 18th century canals in Amsterdam as it's most prominent feature. Tokyo has retained it's basic structure of spiralling out quarters from the central shogunate castle of early Edo times in its modern city layout. Amsterdam is full of tangible objects of the past, in Tokyo the past is often only there in the names of quarters and neighbourhoods, bridges, covered waterways, railway stations, bus stops and modern buildings. There is no way to compare the level of destruction of natural and man made disasters that befell Tokyo and Amsterdam. Floods, earthquakes, fire storms and aerial bombardments have erased big parts of the city of Tokyo repeatedly. Amsterdam has experiences only in its early times some fires and only a few floods with any impact and has been spared a bombardment during the second world war. There have been what is called a 'bombardment from within ' during the so called Hunger Winter of 1945 when there was not sufficient fuel left during a cold winter and the emptied houses of the deported Jewish inhabitants have been ravaged for fire wood and many were demolished in this process, but this does compare in no way to the hardships experienced by the plagued population of Tokyo. A milder climate, repeated destruction and the constant fear of another major earthquake, have also led to a tradition of a more temporary kind of buildings and road structures than the ones we see in a town like Amsterdam. Changes in the cityscape are much more dynamic in Tokyo than in Amsterdam. It will be interesting to see if and how, over a long period of time, these differences are expressed in local literature and other depictions of these two cities.

Literary Psychogeography of Edo/Tokyo 2000->
Tjebbe van Tijen (author)
11 contributing persons
3 contributing organizations
2 locations

who
persons
Boots, Maaike: support
d’Heilly, David: translator lectures English/Japanese v.v., supporter
Fujihata, Masaki: academic host
Haga, Hiraku: cartography advice
Hidenobu, Jinai: advice urban history Edo/Tokyo
Koide, Izumi: bibliographic advice
Lok, King Choi: support
Morita, Takashi: cartography advice
Suzuki, Akira: support
Tijen, Tjebbe van: concept, research
Yamashita, Kazumasa: cartography advice (Edo maps)

organizations
JPN Tokyo, Japan Foundation : subsidiser
JPN Tokyo, Library International House of Japan: content provider, supporter
JPN Tokyo, Tokyo Geidai (art academy): affiliated institute

where/when
locations
(2001) JPN Tokyo, lecture psycho-geography: Tokyo Geidai (art academy)
(2002->) INTERNET imaginarymuseum.org, website: Imaginary Museum Projects


1976; Keene, Donald (1922-); World within walls, Japanese literature of the pre-modern era, 1600-1867; one of the books used for first orientation on psycho-geographic themes in japanese literature.

1983; Seidensticker, Edward G. (1921-); Low city , high city : Tokyo from Edo to the earthquake; shitimachi and yamanote in Japanese, the first book about the town and its changes as expressed in literature.

1990; Seidensticker, Edward G. (1921-) ; Tokyo rising : the city since the great earthquake; the second book on literature that depicts the change of Tokyo landscapes and moods.

1995; Jinnai, Hidenobu; Tokyo a spatial anthropology; Jinnai, who has also studied in Venice Italy, has used his comparative observations in this study that has strong links with my own concept of psycho-geographic studies of urban environments.

2001; Tijen, Tjebbe van; Literary Psycho-geography of Edo/Tokyo & Amsterdam : End report for the Japan Foundation; on-line version in pdf format, also examples of psycho-geographic quotations and visualizations at this link.
46

Shadow Play 2003->
Tjebbe van Tijen (author)
11 contributing persons
2 contributing organizations
1 locations

who
persons
Bos, Wim: laterna magica
Cadat, Anna: lampions, shadow dance
Duijnhoven, Martin van: shadow drum
Duller, Annet: laterna magica
Gales, Fred: sound production
Garcia, David: invitation
Overbeek, Mariet: shadow figures
Pixley, Alex: lampions, shadow dance
Pixley, Rolf: production
Tijen, Lena van: lampions, shadow dance
Tijen, Tjebbe van: concept, production

organizations
NLD Amsterdam, Imaginary Museum Projects: production
NLD Amsterdam, Next 5 Minutes : organizer

where/when
locations
(2003) NLD Amsterdam, Next 5 Minutes 3: Paradiso


1896; Book; Bertrand, Victor; Levende hand-schaduwbeelden; Dutch translation of a 19th century French work on making hand shadows, also using some extra props.

1937; Jeanne, Paul; Les théâtres d'ombres à Montmartre de 1887 à 1923 : Chat noir, Quat'z'arts, Lune rousse : étude historique et analytique, avec la liste de pièces représentées, la Bibliographie des Ombres Françaises et un Appendice sur le montage du Théâtre; Le Chat Noir was specialized in panoramic historical scrolls.

1979; Immoos, Thomas (1918-)/Mayer, Fred; Schattentheater; Protocols of an international meeting on shadow theatre, Greece, Turkey, India, China, Indonesia, Thailand.

2000; Herbert, Stephen; A history of pre-cinema Volume One; An anthology of histroical texts. Reprint of an older work. The almost cinematic use of shadow play in France at the end of the 19th century is documented here.

1999; Tijen, Tjebbe van; Shadow Play script for Next 5 Minutes 3 Conference; web page with first concept text and some pictures of the actual event.
47

Digital Papua music scrolls 2003->
Fred Gales (author)
Tjebbe van Tijen (author)
10 contributing persons
4 contributing organizations
1 locations

who
persons
Bosch, Robert: sound digitization
Gales, Fred: concept, research, sound design, sound production
Kaigere, Gerson: information on Norther New Guinea
Legene, Suzan: commissionar
Maroribo, Eefje: inspirator
Nanaki, Julian: inspirator
Pixley, Rolf: interaction design, software development
Rosema, Wim: support
Tijen, Tjebbe van: concept, visualization
Vink, Stefan: photo research

organizations
NLD Amsterdam, Imaginary Museum Projects: production
NLD Amsterdam, Tropenmuseum : commissionar
NLD Amsterdam, Universiteitsbibliotheek Amsterdam : content provider
NLD Leiden, Rijksmuseum voor Volkenkunde : content provider

where/when
locations
(2003-permanent) NLD Amsterdam, Tropenmuseum


1967; Kunst, Jaap/Scott-Kemball, Jeune; Music in New Guinea; Pioneering work by Dutch ethno-musicologist Jaap Kunst one example of the many sources used for this project.

1992; Ames, Michael; Cannibal tours and glass boxes : the anthropology of museums; critical social theory to help and go beyond an exploitive relationship between museum and aboriginal people.
48

what
An information system that ties the realm of paper information and museum like tangible objects to the dematerialized digital world: looking for new ideas in old things and relating old principles to the latest discoveries.

It is a flexible system of interconnected databases through controlled language elements made up of series of knowledge circles called ‘rotae' (wheels in Latin). These ‘rotae are formed around a ‘core’ that keeps track of all relations. One wheel can become the core of another wheel, only a few times, then a new wheel needs to be made, to avoid an over-centralist and ever expanding system. To keep things manageable.

Several elements of the Ars Memoria System have developed from other projects that involved often some form of data basing, in the field of library work, social action and art: Planotheque database of urban plans in Amsterdam (1986), CLAVIS system at the University Library Amsterdam (1986-), Europe Against the Current database (1988-90), Imaginary Museum of Revolution database (1988-89), Orbis Pictus Revised project (1991-96), Neo-Shamanism project (1997-1998), Literary Psychogeography of Edo/Tokyo (2000-01), Digital Papua (2003).

As I work mostly on the Mac platform, I have chosen Filemaker pro as database system, which was at first somewhat limited as a choice, but it has greatly improved in the last years. Several special plug-ins are used for added functionality, like scanning picture directly into the database and exporting and archiving the pictures, Sound and movie capabilities are tested now (2005). At the same time export units for the actual data have been developed, to be able to switch to other platforms or database programs.

This web site has also been generated by several units of the Ars Memoria System.

why
My experience as an archivist, librarian and artist has led me to make my personal model fro discovering, finding and organizing that what makes sense to me in a world of information. Not just for myself, but to be able to share those experiences; to receive creations and observations from other people; to combine and present them in my own particular form.

It is not an attempt to design a “universal system” or general solutions as a kind of software product for the creative market. Its sole purpose is to have it as a tool to make my own projects, something that has no finished stage, a boat that is structured and rebuild while sailing the seas of information.

Ars Memoria System 2003->
Tjebbe van Tijen (author)
4 contributing persons
2 contributing organizations
2 locations

who
persons
Baanen, Peter: plug-in support
Maio, Alessandro: plug-in support
Pixley, Rolf: software support
Tijen, Tjebbe van: concept, content, software development

organizations
NLD Amsterdam, Imaginary Museum Projects: production
NLD Rotterdam, V2: organizer

where/when
locations
(2003->) INTERNET imaginarymuseum.org, website: Imaginary Museum Projects
(2003) NLD Rotterdam, visual lecture: DEAF festival


1992; Goetz, Philip W./Mchenry, Robert; he New Encyclopaedia Britannica; Propaedia, Outline of Knowledge; In a simple diagram a "circle of the knowledge of the world" is presented as the basic organizing principle of the new Britannica, this diagram is one of the inspiration sources for the Ars memoria System.

2002; Tijen, Tjebbe van; Ars Memoria System; page on website: imaginarymuseum.org.
49

what
The art of provocation and the art of tolerance, during four centuries. An exhibition and Internet installation. Central place of action the Netherlands and all those countries that were directly or indirectly involved in this matter. What was seen as blasphemy, lese majesty, libel, satire, discrimination and obscenity then and now. What were the intentions of those who were accused of such deeds, what did they say, write, or depict, what were the reactions of their contemporaries, if they were prosecuted what was their fate? A time travel through a changing social landscape with brief ‘documentary dramatizations’ as a vehicle. These dramatizations are constructed on the basis of historical material: narrations, texts, visuals and reconstructed music and soundscapes. This historical material can also be consulted separately in detail in the form of digital facsimile. The precise form of the interface for this historical installation has not yet been decided, but some elements are already known, like the option for the users of the installation to decide on forehand what kind of provocation they do not want to see or witness. How exactly this personal selection or censorship will function, still needs to be studied. The following might be an option:

Before entering the exhibition space or spaces a user needs to choose one or more of six electronic badges that represent the categories of provocation on display, thus banning from one’s personal view either blasphemy, lese majesty, libel, satire, racism, or obscenity. Of course a user can also choose to see and hear everything. When a user, who has ‘banned’ one or more provocative categories, enters a space where unwanted things are shown, electronic sensors at the entrance will immediately recognize a change in the composition of the audience and block out what should not be seen and heard, leaving only that what the audience of that moment has defined as acceptable. Other ways to represent the ‘changing space of tolerance’ might be found during further research.

Some form of tactile and spatial ‘time lines’ might be developed, whereby the experimental ‘micro-chrono machine’ of 1994 (see event no 32) can be a conceptual model. Emblematic representations of the six categories of provocation will indicate the state of tolerance in a particular part of the exhibition. Machine controlled curtains might be used to block undesired dramatizations. Portraits of “provocateurs” and their adversaries, enemies, or opponents, may form a visual entry points to a specific dramatization, though in several cases no portraits are available and some other form of representation as a portrait needs to be developed.

The tableau picture of the De Tolerantia proposal shows in red a series of of some persons that have been labeled as blasphemists and whose cases could be documented: Uriel Acosta (1584-1640), Baruch Spinoza (1632-1677), Voltaire (1694-1778), Jean Meslier (1664-1729), Rudolf Charles (1826-1904), Leo Taxil (1854-1907), Louis Hermans (1861-1943), Mies Bouwman (1929-), Gerard Reve (1923-), Ayaan Hirsi Ali (1969-)somewhat hidden in this picture, and Theo van Gogh (1957-2004). Some faces of those involved in ‘lese majesty’ are Sicco Roorda van Eysinga (1825-1887), Ferdinand Domela Nieuwenhuis (1846-1919), Jozef Alexander Cohen (1864-1961), Peter Schat (1935-2003) en Aart Veldhoen (1934-). The selection of portraits in the tableau picture is only indicative.

The extensive research that needs to be done can profit from a whole series of recent historical studies on the issue of censorship and tolerance. Several study circles may be formed to bring together, in a collaborative effort, the historical documents, using modern scanning, data basing and communication techniques. The Internet version of ‘De Tolerantia’ can be the first stage of the project, whereby instead of the badge system of the exhibition, a personal log-in and password system will assure that the user will not be confronted with materials he or she does not wish to see.

why
This project has been triggered by the murder of the Dutch filmmaker and columnist Theo van Gogh by a second generation Moroccan Dutch young man in November 2004. The murder was an abhorrent deed. The public debate that followed could at first only be emotional. Later on, most argumentation remained narrow and at the surface, broader historical arguments would rarely be brought in. Personally I only appreciated certain activities of Theo van Gogh (his nice series of interviews on local Amsterdam television: “Een prettig gesprek”/a pleasant conversation) and had little sympathy for his written outbursts and fixations as a columnist and pamphleteer. As a librarian I have learned that the space for ‘freedom of expression’ is not only created by expressions with high moral standing, honorable intentions, or refined deliberations, much of this space is conquered and secured by advocates, partisans and zealots of all sorts, for all kinds of causes. Theo van Gogh has been a fighter at the frontier of this space, even widening it, sometimes forgetting that 'space' has more than one dimension, that freedom needs some form of reciprocal respect.

The primary facts of the murder of Van Gogh are known by most people as his dramatic death became world news. To learn about local Dutch details and the wider historical context is more difficult. The direct cause for the murder seems to be a short film by Van Gogh and Liberal Party parliamentarian Ayaan Hirsi Ali with the title "Submission", broadcasted on Dutch television in September 2004. The film is a kind of cinematic pamphlet with texts from the Koran about 'female obedience to men' written on the naked body of a lady wearing a transparent veil, complaining - in a prayer manner - about her mistreatment, all this accompanied by the sound of a lashing whip. For many Muslims this was blasphemy. It probably was not only this incident that made Van Gogh into a target, he had been sneering at the backward ideas of Islam fundamentalist and their threat to Dutch society for several years, often in a direct and offending way, like calling male Muslims “goat fuckers”. Muslim fundamentalist were not the only targets of Van Gogh’s poignant columns, he had a polemic with several writers and journalists for years on what he thought to be ‘misuse’ of Jewish self-pity. Some court cases were made against him because of discriminatory insults, but after an initial conviction Van Gogh appealed and was acquitted. The Dutch justice system, in the end, did put the right of freedom of expression before three other interests: the protection of personal honor and public peace, and the prohibition of group discrimination.

These court cases were related to the hurt feelings of Jewish people, among which television presentator Sonja Barends and writer Leon de Winter. Before the murder of Van Gogh no Dutch Muslim individual, or organization, took someone to court because of an insult or act of discrimination. There has been a petition against Van Gogh as a column writer for the free daily newspaper ‘Metro’ in March 2004. This petition delivered to parliament and the Dutch secret service AIVD (according to the petitioners van Gogh had become a state security threat), was launched at the Internet-site “imaan.nl” (Islamic information gathering on the Internet). For some unknown reason, after having gathered one thousand signatures, the petition register was closed. The popular daily 'Metro' had at that time a print run of approximate 280.000, which is more than most of the (non-free) well established Dutch newspapers. The title of the column that provoked this petition was: “Mag ik dat zeggen?” (am I allowed to say that?). The column was not only directed at the Muslim community. In four short flaming paragraphs van Gogh manages to launch five provocations directed at: - the Dutch Socialist Party, who had blamed him to antagonize young Muslims, driving them to take part in the ‘Holy War’, reminding these (ex-maoists) socialist of their own blindness for atrocities under the Mao regime; - supporters of the Palestinian cause by applauding the Israeli killing of sheik Yassin of Hamas; - Dutch Muslims that protested Mohammed’s role as a rapist and pedophile in the play ‘Aisja’ based on a novel by the Algerian French writer Assia Djebar; - the Social Democrat Party that had never understood the meaning of World War II and the word ‘deportation’; - an Iranian asylum seeker and his supporters, whose honest intentions were doubted; and - the “fifth column of goat fuckers” that threaten us with "poison gas, illnesses and atomic blasts". Van Gogh ended this column with a comparison of his own form of satire with that of the 1983 Monty Python film “The meaning of life” which ridicules the Christian faith, lamenting that such a movie with Mohammed as the main character could not be made or shown anymore in nowadays Dutch “multi-cultural society”.

Depending on one’s position or opinion, forms of blasphemy, racism, defamation, slander, libel, or obscenity could be ascertained in many of Van Gogh's texts and statements, though some of his targets have said not to be offended too much, many saw it as a caricature, a permitted form of satire, and most chose to ignore him altogether.

The outcry and public debate in the weeks after the murder of Van Gogh started off with strong statements from politicians and opinion leaders on the fundamental right of “freedom of expression”, condemning the intolerance of Islamic fundamentalist, and making Van Gogh a sort of martyr for the cause of freedom. Some of these “spontaneous” reactions by representatives of the government fired latent feelings of islamophobia and there were several incidents of arson with Moroccan and Turkish schools and centers as a target, especially in more rural areas of the country. Over time other voices were heard, some criticizing the provocative uttering of Van Gogh, others critically commenting the zeal of parliamentarian Hirsi Ali and her way of fighting for woman rights in the Dutch Islamic community. In attempt to calm the waves the minister of justice Donner suggested that a Dutch law against blasphemy - made in the thirties of last century - should be amended and used to prevent further inter-religion and inter-cultural strive. This anti-blasphemy law is an opportunistic legal device made in 1931 on the instigation of Christian politicians who feared the Bolshevik anti-religion campaigns of the Soviet Union and the local Dutch socialist attitude toward their religion. This law was mainly about protecting catholic and Protestant communities against what was seen as the danger of atheist and socialist propaganda. When such a law would be adapted to the modern Dutch multi-cultural society with its greater variety of religions, than just the Christian and Jewish faith, more problems would be created than solved, courts would be flooded with complaints by all sorts of believers, churches and sects. In some way it became clear that such social questions are to be solved by community instead of authority. This has placed the notion of ‘tolerance’ more and more central in the ongoing debate.

The Dutch like to see themselves as a tolerant nation, they often boast about how liberal and broad minded they were already in their 17th century republic, when most other European nations were groaning under the yoke of absolutist kings and emperors. This idealization of the past has taken national proportions with the recent wailing of government officials about the lost of the “precious Dutch tolerance” ('verdraagzaamheid' is the Dutch word for 'tolerance' literally meaning the ability to 'bear' or 'endure' something). With a little bit of scrutiny one would find, even in recent Dutch history, many examples of the opposite. Like in most West European countries economic egoism lead to a massive import of foreign labor without any official intend of permanent residence, let alone integration. Subsequent problems arose, with outbursts of xenophobia, even whole scale popular riots against what the Dutch at first called 'gastarbeider' (guest workers), like stone throwing and arson against gastarbeider boardinghouses in the poor Afrikaander quarter of Rotterdam in 1972. Side effects of the Dutch colonial inheritance, like the massive Surinam immigration after "independence" in 1975, and the recent influx of young Antilleans have - only reluctantly ­ been absorbed, and still, till today, white parents try not to send their kids to what is wrongly called "black schools".

Whether it is 'tolerance' or 'permissiveness' that characterizes Dutch society depends on one's personal view of life. Exemplary changes in fields of education, sexual and relational morale, drug usage, and euthanasia, are only a recent phenomenon and the result of many conflicts, fights, and struggles in all social realms. A process of the questioning of authorities and their prohibitions, that started in the early sixties of last century and took more than two decades to arrive at the actual state of affairs. The notion of 'depillarization' (ontzuiling) is most often used to describe the fore mentioned process whereby the typical vertical segregation of Dutch society, based on the main confessions and tendencies (called pillars) of Protestants, Catholics and socialists, came to an end, mainly as a result of secularization and related changes in social strata. This system of pillars had lasted for over a century, each pillar would have its own political parties, trade unions, social organizations and in the case of the Christian pillars their own Protestant or catholic educational system (paid for by the government). Socialist, liberals and non-confessional people would mostly go to public schools and universities. Confession and ideology came before one's class position. As none of these pillars had a plain majority, each needed to respect the other. Politics could only be made on the basis of some form of coalition and compromise. These circumstances were the basis for the pragmatic political attitude of the Dutch: tolerance not so much as a high standing moral form of civilization, but as a political calculation of chances.

When one goes further back in history, some historians (like Romein) have related this pragmatic Dutch attitude to their common enemy, 'the water', that had to be fought and conquered together, in spite of religious differences ("God created the earth and the Dutch the dikes" is the commonplace). This is of course a rather idealized view and one could as well change one's focus and note the fanatic attempts of all kind of Dutch Protestant vicars to undermine the secular Dutch Republic and impose their church state system. Apart from some unwelcome memories of Catholics being massacred by Protestants (like the 19 martyrs of Gorkum in 1572) the inhabitants of the low countries must have learned something of the violent intolerance of the catholic Spanish empire, toward other forms of Christianity. Maybe the slow process of taking power from the Spanish (the Eighty Years' War) diminished the need for direct revenge. In most cases the take over of power by the Protestants took the form of an 'alteration', without much violence, whereby the Calvinist 'Dutch Reformed' became the official church in the public sphere. The Catholics had formally to disappear from public view, their churches were converted, cloisters closed, libraries confiscated. In most cities of the new Dutch Republic Catholics, nevertheless, could still practice their faith, be it not publicly. They used what was called 'schuilkerken', ('shelter churches') which were not really 'clandestine churches', everybody knew about their existence, but officially they did not exist. Also dissenting Protestants like Lutherans, Remonstrants and Mennonites had their 'schuilkerken'. Around 1700 the town of Amsterdam had 20 of such 'shelter churches' and Utrecht 15. Through the nominal power of the official Dutch Reformed Church and public invisibility of most other religions, national unity was safeguarded. So here the practice of religious pluriformity, the famous Dutch tolerance, was realized through institutionalized hypocrisy.

In comparison to neighbouring countries the Netherlands of the 17th and 18th century allowed for certain freedoms, like the 'freedom of press', though one should not forget that at least 500 publications have been forbidden in this period. An older standard work on 'book bans' ('placaeten' in Dutch) by Knuttel lists 450 placaeten and often more than one title could be affected by one such an official document. The non-central government system of the Dutch Republic complicates historical research on this matter as one has to search at different archival levels: States General, Provincial, Town, and Church, so newer researches indicate that higher numbers of forbidden publication could be found. Two or three centuries ago printers and authors would make use of these different administrative levels, avoiding fines, seizure, expulsion or imprisonment by moving to another town or province. There were clearly economic advantages in having a certain level of 'freedom of press', but all the while Protestant religious authorities have been on the watch and there are many cases were publishers, authors and their products have come under attack. There are also examples of successful foreign interventions at a national level to forbid certain publications. Books of Voltaire and Rousseau have been both printed and publicly burned in the Dutch Republic; Spinoza might be a national hero now, but he and his followers have been harassed and prosecuted as heretics by Dutch secular authorities pushed by the church. Several writers ended up in prison, some died there, or in an asylum, like Adriaan Koerbagh (1632-1669) who had Spinozist ideas and published critical and humorous dictionaries on law and theological words. This last one became fatal to him. In 1668 he was accused of blasphemy, arrested and interrogated, after which the bailiff demanded a series of barbaric punishments: chopping off his right hand thumb, piercing his tongue with a red hot pincer and thirty years of imprisonment. The verdict was somewhat lighter: ten years of imprisonment, ten years of banishment and a fine of four thousand guilders. One year later Koerbagh had died in the Amsterdam 'Rasphouse', the house of correction.

A few years later in 1689 an English refugee in the Dutch Republic, John Locke, published anonymously a Latin text with the title "Epistola de Tolerantia" (A letter concerning toleration) in which he pleads for religious toleration and a clear separation between Church and State. It is a time when religion played a central role in the affairs of nation and state and religious persecution was an ever present threat. Like the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685 by the catholic king Louis XIV, a decree that had granted for almost a century some form of liberty of conscience to the Protestants of France. This revocation lead to massacres and a massive flight of French Protestants (Huguenots) to neighbouring countries like Germany and the Netherlands. Locke himself had been involved in a religious conflict in England when a catholic, James II, was about to succeed to the throne that was held by a Protestant before. The usual binding of whole populations to the religion of their sovereign, which [text to be finished]




De Tolerantia and the art of provocation 2004->
Tjebbe van Tijen (author)
2 contributing persons
1 contributing organizations

who
persons
Tijen, Tjebbe van: concept, research
Vugt, Ewald van: support

organizations
NLD Amsterdam, Imaginary Museum Projects: production


1689/1743; Locke, John; De Toleranntia"; Cover of first American edition.The original Latin edition was published in 1689 in Gouda, the Netherlands..

1970; Roo, Egon Johan de; Godslastering : rechtsvergelijkende studie over blasfemie en andere religiedelicten; (Blasphemy : a comparative law study) Law history of blasphemy in several European countries..

1982; Hazeu, Wim; Wat niet mocht ... : een overzicht van censuur , ernstige en minder ernstige gevallen van vrijheidsbeknotting in Nederland (1962-1981); An overview of twenty years of censorship in the Netherlands..

1993; Lawton, David; Blasphemy; From the Old Testament to the Rushdie affair, the ever changing social context that creates the inseperatable twins blasphmer and prosecutor. This study lays bare the reciprocity between accusers and accused..

1996; Vanvugt, Ewald; Nestbevuilers : 400 jaar Nederlandse critici van het koloniale bewind in de Oost en de Wes; (Befoulers of their own nest : 400 year od Dutch critics of colonial reign in the East and West) 53 portraits from the 16th to the 20th century..

1998; Weekhout, Ingrid Marlies; Boekencensuur in de Noordelijke Nederlanden : een verkennend onderzoek naar de vrijheid van drukpers gedurende de zeventiende eeuw; Another view on censorship and 17th century "tolerance" in the Dutch Republic based on extensive research of primary sources. It shows the many risks of publishing, not just fines and bans but also prison sentences and exile for author and publisher whose product conflicted with opinions of church or local government..

2002; Haas, Anna Sophia de; Achter slot en grendel : schrijvers in Nederlandse gevangenschap 1700-1800; 19 stories about imprisoned Dutch writers in the 18th century, some even dying in prison or in an asylium. The social background of their conflicts with authorities because of blasphemy, sex, libel, falsification, treason and the like..